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Chapter 24: Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America from 1919-1939

Lecture to accompany the text "The Essential World History" by William J. Duiker and Jackson J. Spielvogel
by

Jason Holloway

on 24 September 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 24: Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America from 1919-1939

1. The Rise of Nationalism
2. Revolution in China
4. Nationalism and Dictatorship in Latin America
3. Japan Between the Wars
Chapter 24: Nationalism, Revolution, and Dictatorship: Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America from 1919-1939.
Self-doubt of the west sparks rising anti-colonial movements
What groups largely led nationalist movements?
Other non-western and non-colonized countries also develop a lack of confidence in western institutions.
What types of figures usually became nationalists?
Why was this situation paradoxial?
Opportunities for advancement for the colonized are uniformly blocked.
Movements advocating nationalism begin to emerge in the 1880s and 1890s though not for independence at first.
Connections in many places to religion such as in Burma.
What was the national quandary of many of these movements?
Nationalist leaders themselves often deeply out of touch with the masses.
Women actively involved in movement.
Later Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the main figure.
What characteristics does he represent in colonial nationalist leadership?
Dual nature of the struggle, religious and secular, national yet western, traditional and modern.
Increasing splits in nationalists in India over religion, outbreaks of communal strife, and near civil war.
Elsewhere in the Middle East the situation is radically different in 1919.
Previously the Ottoman Empire attempts significant reform prior to World War I under the Young Turks
Stirrings of nationalism during this period expand after the war.
With its defeat in WWI and the loss of many non-Turkish areas, a Turkish nation-state seems a possibility.
Between 1919-1923 attempts to colonize Turkey are defeated, and Greeks efforts to conquer large territories are stopped by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.
With the end of these invasions the Ottoman Empire is officially abolished and the Turkish Republic established in 1923.
Ataturk undertakes a significant modernization process in Turkey.
New alphabet, promotion of Turkish nationalism, European education, European last names, abolished aristocratic titles.
Firm state guidance and industrialization of the economy.
Secularization, the caliphate is abolished, Sharia law ended, Islamic clothing essentially forbidden.
Woman are given a place in society, more rights, etc.
Freedom to convert from Islam is established.
What are the legacies of Kemal Ataturk's rule in Turkey?
Modernizing efforts occur in Persia too but have more difficulty.
Dynasty moves capital from Tabriz to Tehran to mitigate foreign influences but conversely looks to the British and the Russians to preserve their power.
Popular national movements led to the establishment of some Western themes of government like a constitution.
The British and the Russian informally divide Persia into North and South spheres of interest.
The British dominate the developing oil industry in the south.
Military coup occurs under Reza Khan who then attempts Ataturk like reforms.
The country's name is changed to Iran from Persia.
A new dynast is established despite intentions otherwise.
What are some of the differences between Turkey and Iran's modernization processes?
Eventually strong foreign influence and intervention forces Reza Khan from power during World War II.
Iraq is established by the British in the territory they occupy in Mesopotamia.
Why is the establishment of Iraq as a nation-state in many ways problematic?
Iraq is nominally independent but is essentially a colony and reliant on the British until after World War II.
Elsewhere the Arab Revolt of 1917 is betrayed by the Western Powers as no unified Arab state is created or supported.
What do the Western Powers do with the Middle East instead?
Balfour Declaration of 1917 causes further issues to develop in Palestine.
What problems exist with the institutionalization of the Balfour Declaration?
Transjordan eventually created to help with these issues but overall does little to solve them.
Growing immigration, zionism cause greater and greater conflict in Palestine under British control.
Saudi Arabia is created in 1932 which though poor and isolated quickly finds it fortunes changed through the discovery of massive reserves of oil by the Americans.
Why do intellectuals in the colonies only look to Western models of development and not towards Marxism originally?
Lenin changes this trend with his theories of imperialism and actively attempts to ally with national groups in the colonies.
Comintern is created to promote this agenda and is increasingly successful.
Most countries have some groups affliated with Comintern.
How did communism eventually appeal to the third world?
Where was it more successful and less successful at and why?
By 1930s success overall was limited, no country had majoritarian support, though the stage had been set for future advances.
India a great example of these issues.
Indian National Congress is fromed for gradual independence over time.
Always had enormous difficulty with religious issues.
Rise of Gandhi and his policies of non-violent resistance to British rule.
Massacre at Armitsar and the Salt March.
Marxist ideas were extremely influential in China and the founding of the CCP in 1921.
In what ways did the prior revolution of 1911 not live up to expectations?
Nationalist party has difficulty in consolidating control over the country.
Central government essentially disintegrates and warlordism prevails.
New culture movement advocates increasing adoption of western ideas.
Also supports movements against foreign domination of China.
What power at this time period has become the most threatening to the Chinese?
During the First World War period Japan presents 21 demands to the Chinese which are rejected.
What happens to Germany's territory in China during World War I?
In 1920 there is a near complete absence of a central government, the nationalist party and the CCP ally in order to assert control over the country.
Together the two launch the Northern Expedition to take over territory from the warlords and the military government.
Sun Yat-sen dies and is succeeded by Chiang Kai-skek.
In 1927 what circumstances start the First Chinese Civil War?
Chiang founds the Chinese Republic in 1928 at Nanjing.
Chiang forces the communists into retreat from Shanghai and populated south in the early 1930s.
What was the Long March of 1934-1935?
In terms of government, the Nationalists pay homage to democratic rule but were dictatorial as they believed that the Chinese were not ready for democracy.
China was still poor, uneducated, with a small westernized middle class disconnected from the peasantry.
What did the term Banana Chinese mean?
Government is very unsuccessful in economic management of the country.
Severe government restrictions, deep-seated corruption, and huge military expenditures.
Socially there are deep changes, youth assault traditional values.
Confucian group vs. western individual values.
Family system does decline but is still prevalant.
Woman get greater levels of freedom but are still restricted.
Foreign elements more and more prevasive in culture. More imitation within art of western ideas with contempt of the past apparent amongst many.
Japan continues to progress rapidly along western lines.
Gradually trends towards democratization, political party system, free press, etc.
Men receive universal suffrage in 1925.
Growing problems in the late 1920s though as reactionary forces begin to take control.
Economically Japan continues to grow rapidly and competes more and more directly with the West.
Financial cliques develop that control more and more of the economy and have deep influence in government.
Diplomatically policies of expansion from before and during World War I are continued.
Why did Japan wish to expand as strongly as they did?
Increasing tensions with the United States.
The Washington Conference of 1925.
Attempts to settle Japanese perceived economic needs diplomatically were harder and harder to achieve.
Great Depression upsets the direction of the country allowing militarists to assume control and take ever more aggressive movements internationally.
Latin America did not participate in World War I but was nonetheless impacted by it greatly.
By 1920 the region was largely independent with some exceptions.
How was the economy structured in most Latin American countries?
Who benefitted from this sort of economic structure?
During the interbellum period, the U.S. replaces the British as the primary economic power in the region.
What does the term Banana Republic mean and how did it come about?
The Great Depression greatly unsettles the region nad military dictatorships with fascist sensibilities takeover.
Argentina is wealthy from beef, wheat, etc. Also establishes local industries and remains fairly stable.
Brazil overthrows their monarchy and grows enormous quantities of coffee.
Also in the 1930s and 1940s Vargas creates the Estado Novo and becomes the most industrial Latin American state.
Mexico is upset by revolutionary upheaval.
Struggles by Emiliano Zapata, Pancho Villa etc. to establish land reform, social welfare etc.
How successful were they?
Cardenas in the 1930s redistributes land and nationalizes the Oil industry creating PEMEX.
In terms of culture, the modernist movement is extremely influential in Latin America.
Diego Rivera and his famed mural paintings.
Frida Kahlo and her surrealist influences.
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