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AS Chemistry F322 Organic Molecules

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Alex Chung

on 24 April 2013

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Transcript of AS Chemistry F322 Organic Molecules

Alkanes Organic compounds Alkenes Esters Alcohols Halogenoalkanes Polymers Dihalogenoalkanes Aldehydes Carboxylic acids Keytones Radical Substitution e.g. Bromine and methane Homolytic fission of Bromine 1. Initiation - when free radicals are formed 2. Propapgation - two repeated steps that build up the products in a chain reaction Br radical + methane = HBr + CH3 radical Br radical + CH3 radical = bromomethane 3. Termination - when two radicals combine to form a molecule Br radical + Br radical = Bromine etc. Cracking 450 C o Zeolite catalyst Electrophillic Addition e.g. Ethene and hydrogen bromide Heterolytic fission occures forming ions Curly arrow from the H-Br bond to the Br atoms NB when drawing diagrams make sure the curly arrows go to the right places e.g. from the -ve sign on the bromide ion to the +ve sign on the carbo cation Electrons from C=C are donated to the slightly positive bromide atom Curly arrow from C=C bond to delta +ve hydrogen. One carbon becomes a carbocation Carbon where the hydrogen WAS NOT bonded to has +ve sign Nucleophillic Br ion donates its electrom pair to the carbocation ion Curly arrow from the -ve sign to the +ve sign Ethene + Hydrogen bromide = bromoethane Electrophillic addtion Same mechanism as when forming halogenalkanes except instead of having a hydrogen halide molecule you just have a halogen There is an induced dipole in the halogen bond Ethene + Bromine = Dibromoethane NB all the hydrogen in alkanes can eventually be substiuted for halogens + Water Like an electrophillic addition reaction Conditions : Steam and acid catalyst Dehydration Conditions: Concentrated acid and reflux - water Hydrolysis (using water to break up the molecule) Nucleophillic substitution: Conditions: Reflux e.g. chloroethane Lone pair on a OH ion is attracted to the delta +ve carbon which is bonded to the halogen. The OH donates its lone pair to the carbon Curly arrow from LONE PAIR (or -ve sign) on the OH to the Carbon atom. OH attacks from behind the carbon (i.e. as far from the halogen as possible) Heterolyic fission occures which forms a Chlorine ion Curly arrow from C-Cl bond to the Cl Chloroethane + Water = Ethanol + Hydrochloric acid Primary Secondary Tertiary (no reaction) with acidified dichromate Green Orange to Reflux Reflux Distill Reflux Esterification Carboxylic acid + Alcohol = Ester + Water Conditions: heat and acid catalyst Propanoic acid + Methanol = Methylpropanoate Esterification Oxidation Polymerisation (Alky alkanoates) Now we'll go back to Which can also be made from Alkenes by Which can be made from
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