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Transcript of TOK Presentation
Patrizia Wyler Real Life Situation Organ shortfall in the German-speaking part of Switzerland Switzerland has among the lowest levels of organ donation in the EU
Shortage of organs is a public health issue
Roughly 1'000 are currently waiting on donors willing to give up their organs upon death
100 die every year for lack of a suitable organ
Irony: in CH people generally have a positive attitude towards organ donation, yet there is STILL a shortage
Why the shortage?
"a reluctance to consider one’s own death" -Mélanie Mader Knowledge Issue To what extent does one's perspective of death hinder saving lives through organ donation once dead? AOKs Human Sciences Medicine Natural Sciences Biology
Morals WOKs Perception
Emotion Definitions Death Death is the irreversible stopping of all vital functions especially as indicated by permanent stoppage of the heart, respiration, and brain activity
death determination: cessation of functions and irreversibility Brain Dead No electrical activity and no blood flow present in the brain. Someone who is brain dead will not respond to pain, has no outgoing brain signals and organ function WILL be dependent on mechanical support. Brain death is irreversible. Perception A way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something Religion A set of guidelines/rules/ideas upon which individuals base and justify certain actions in theirs lives Roman Catholic
Pope Pius: The determination of death may not "fall
within the competence of the church" and should be
determined by medical experts Islam
Islamic leaders accept the donation of organs if:
No harm is caused and the donor is still alive.
The donation is saving lives.
They do not accept brain death but rather consider
the stopping of all signs of life as the actual death of a human Buddhism
It is a great merit to donate anything for the sake of another.
The choice however has to be made by the donor.
"We honor those people who donate their bodies and organs to the advancement of medical science and to saving lives." Morality We don't want to confront our own mortality A person's standards of behavior or beliefs concerning what is and is not acceptable for them to do So... organ donation = saving lives = good Right? But what if your RELIGION says its wrong? The line between right and wrong blurs as different perceptions of death and organ donation come into play Some Religious Perspectives Judaism
Accepts organ donation under 2 conditions
the donor must be deceased before donation
organs are treated respectfully
Issue: death = no circulation, no respiration & no brain activity
there needs to be circulation and respiration for the donation to be medically useful
belief that death renders the body impure and dangerous
it is a crime to "injure" a dead body Jehovah's Witnesses
Up to the 1980s organ transplants were strongly rejected
viewed as a form of cannibalism
donor is killed by the removal of organs
Medical Perspectives on Death After brain death, a body can be kept "alive" for years with the help of machines
if the body can live on then are we actually dead?
is there enough evidence to prove that brain death is irreversible
Organ donation requires circulation and respiration
Argumentum ad ignorantiam Since there is no evidence disproving that brain death is irreversible, then it must me irreversible
what if we just don't have the means to disprove it yet...
Brain Death Cardiac Death Irreversibility is based on how long the heart has ceased to function.
the heart must stop long enough for brain death to take place due to lack of oxygen and blood to the brain
the body can not be kept alive for organ donation via machines due to heart damage vs If your faith says no to organ donations, then is it an immoral faith for not saving lives?
If your faith says no to organ donation, does it make it moral not to save lives? Should the "type" of death determine whether you are a donor or not?
only brain dead patients will be donors
Should what happens to your organs after death even matter to you?
what you don't know can't kill you....you're already dead Ultimately The decision to be a donor is an individual one Emotion Fear
Hope Does everyone deserve a 2nd chance at life?
ex: criminals the lack of knowledge that comes with death
don't want to think about it docs won't try as hard if I'm a donor What if I'm that one person who does come back from brain death? Conclusion not only yours, but also of those closest to you
how would a mother feel if her son's heart was given to someone else shortly after his death? Bibliography THE END