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framework for understanding poverty (chapter 2)
Transcript of framework for understanding poverty (chapter 2)
C. Duke, L. Green & L. Lawrence a framework for
UNDERSTANDING POVERTY To better understand poverty, one must understand three aspects of language: Registers of language
Story Structure Registers of Language Every language in the world has five registers:
FROZEN- language that is always the same. Examples: prayers, pledge of allegience FORMAL- the standard sentence syntax and word choice of work and school. Has complete sentences and specific word choice.
CONSULTATIVE- formal register when used in conversation.
CASUAL- Language between friends and is characterized by a 400-800 word vocabulary
INTIMATE- language between lovers or twins. Language of sexual harassment. How does register impact students from poverty? Research suggests:
The majority of poverty students do not have access to formal register at home
All state tests are in formal register
To get a well-paying job, it is expected that one will be able to use formal register (inability will knock one out of an interview in 3 minutes).
Student conversations in casual register get meaning from non-verbal assists.
Communicating in writing without the non-verbal assist can be an overwhelming task. Formal register needs to be directly taught.
Casual register needs to be recognized as the primary discourse for many students.
Discourse patterns need to be directly taught.
Both story structures need to be used as a part of classroom instruction.
Discipline that occurs when a student uses the inappropriate register should be a time for instruction in the appropriate register.
Students need to be told how much the formal register affects their ability to get a well-paying job. What does this information mean in the school setting? What can schools do to address these isuues? Formal-register story structure
Most important part of the story is the plot
Casual-register story structure
Vignettes with audience participation
Begins with the end of the story first or the part with the greatest emotional intensity
Most important part of the story is the characterization Story Structure Formal register –
Pattern is to get straight to the point
Pattern is to go around and around and finally get to the point Discourse Patterns
in Formal and Casual Register Get with a partner and discuss the suggestions given on page 34. Which one would make the greatest impact in your classroom? Research suggests that people learn languages by being immersed in them and having a constant interaction with that language. Therefore, when we ask students to move from a casual register to a formal register, we need to direct teach it. Immerse them in it with constant interaction.