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Copy of MBSE (Mindfulness-based sports enhancement)
Transcript of Copy of MBSE (Mindfulness-based sports enhancement)
(Cooper, 1998) "Flow" - Csikszentmihalyi (1990) Mindfulness
Three Constructs Fusion of body and mind
Heightened sense of skill mastery
Focus on the present
Perceptions of effortlessness
Feelings of relaxation
Automaticity of performance
Traditional approach to performance enhancement Challenge-skill balance
Action awareness merging
Total concentration on the task at hand
Sense of control
Loss of self-consciousness
Transformation of time
What promotes peak performance? Can mindfulness practices promote PP?
Are mindful athletes better athletes? Cognitive-behavioural approach Paradoxically may trigger a monitoring process that can negatively impact performance. (Gardner & Moore, 2004)
Self-control of inner states (psychological skills training) i.e. self-talk, goal setting, imagery, thought stopping etc... (Conroy & Metzler, 2004) Research has sought to understand how the mind affects athletic performance. Flow occurs when people are neither anxious or bored, rather, manifesting during moments of happiness and enjoyment. It is the process underlying peak performance. Nonconceptual
(ed. Germer, Siegel, Fulton, 2005) Can mindfulness based practices encourage flow and consequently enhance athletic performance? What characteristics promote or detract from flow? Elevated confidence
Maintaining constructive thoughts
Optimal precompetitive arousal
High intrinsic motivation
Previous Research The Study Results Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE) Kabat-Zinn, Beall, and Rippe. (1985) - U.S. Olympic Rowing Team trained in mindfulness Gardner & Moore (2004) - Mindfulness-Acceptance-Committment (MAC) approach to sport enhancement. A manualized protocol with seven modules - a) psychoeducation, b) mindfulness, c) values identification, d) acceptance, e) commitment, f) skill consolidation and poise, g) maintaining and enhancing. Randomized and controlled trial with collegiate athletes showed a significantly greater number of athletes completing the MAC trial (32% compared with 10% of athletes receiving traditional skills training, demonstrated improved coach ratings at post test. Designed to understand how the 4 week training program (2.5-3 hr weekly sessions) could impact:
Psychological factors Conceptualized as a way to extend the MBSR & MBCT to athletes without the values based or committment of MAC. Between sessions:
Athletes completed mindfulness homework
Completed daily mindfulness log & sport performance log (at least once per week to record a competion or practice)
Immediately following all competitions or scored practices, the athletes were asked to complete a state measure of flow Participants 32 participants - 11 archers & 21 golfers
Why archery and golf? Both are objectively scored, self-paced, closed-skill sports requiring a high degree of mental focus and fine motor movement.
Recruited from clubs and teams in the mid-atlantic region. Random assignment and wait-list control groups not possible due to lack of interest and scheduling conflicts. Before program:
Athletes completed forms related to trait levels of sport anxiety, perfectionism, sport confidence, thought disruption, mindfulness, and flow.
Following the first session a state mindfulness measure was taken and readministered following the last session. Pre and Postworkshop t-tests for Trait Psychological Variables
Trait Measure t-test
Sport Anxiety -.60
Thought Disruption -2.17
Sport Confidence +2.48
No significant differences were found between archers and golfers Sport Performance No significant difference in sport performance was measured.
However, the athletes' general level of satisfaction with their sport performance was significantly higher after the workshop than before the start. Given the competitive and high stakes nature of amateur and professional sports, a high degree of interest has been given to the subject. Mindfulness research in sports is in its infancy. Training Sessions consistent of sitting and walking meditation, yoga, and body scan, along with sport specific training. Mind and Body - Running Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche Promote Flow Detract from Flow Don't think anxious thoughts... don't think anxious thoughts... A presentation by:
Conroy, D.E., & Metzler, J.N. (2004). Patterns of self-talk associated with different forms of competitive anxiety. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 26, 69-89.
Cooper, A. (1998). Playing in the zone: Exploring the spiritual dimensions of sports. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.
Gardner, F.L., & Moore, Z.E. (2004). A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behaviour Therapy, 35, 707-723.
Germer, C.K., Fulton, P.R., & Siegel, R.D. (eds.) (2005). “What is Mindfulness?”, in Mindfulness and Psychotherapy. New York: The Guilford Press, 3-27.
Kabat-Zinn, J., Beall, B., & Rippe, J. (1985, June). A systematic mental training program based on mindfulness meditation to optimize performance in collegiate and Olympic rowers. Poster presented at the World Congress in Sport Psychology, Copenhagen, Denmark.