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Actor-Network Theory

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by

Youssef Hegab

on 25 December 2013

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Transcript of Actor-Network Theory


Actants

Black Box

Cooptation

Inscription

Obligatory Points of Passage (OPP)

Translation
OB responds to advances in TECHNOLOGY
Technology changed the way people interact
It is certainly true that the advances of technology changed the way most people interact with each other.
Content
What is
is a sociological theory,
distinguished from other
network theories :
that an
ANT
contains
not only humans; but also objects & organizations (non-humans).
Both humans & non are called as actors or actants.
ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY
People & Modern Technology... "Omar Mkram"
OB responds to advances in Technology... "Yasser Nawar"
ANT... "Youssef Hegab"
ANT Principles... "Noha"
ANT Concepts... "Hossam"
How Does ANT work... "Mostafa Yasser"
Less face to face interactions may cause :
 Spending a lot of time communicating via a digital medium may prevent us to communicate in a broader way, in which people can read each other in a broader sense, with body language, eye contact, intonation and so.
Firstly
it is cheaper and easier to contact virtually anyone in any part of the world
Secondly
it is possible to transmit the message people want to via different forms
Finally
 technology can be a complementary way of interaction
Principles of Actor Network Theory
There are three (3) main principles of (ANT):
Concepts of
ANT
Presenting
ACTOR NETWORK THEORY

as a theoretical perspective and working methods on
HOW
to
LEAD
allies in the Technological CHANGES...
Basic explanation of Leadership in ANT
• Interaction
• Social
• Creates an open Network
• Creating an connection between Interaction and Social arrangements
Initial Interaction

Attraction of Allies

Network Growth
Network Stabilization
• Most Leaders see leadership differently
• Their thoughts about leadership
The Blind Spot in Leadership
How Does ANT Work?
• ANT Focuses on enrolling allies
• Translated and Aligned
• Lead into network continuation
Some Leaders use these
Strategies for….
1) Seeking new Alliances and enrolling them
2) Creating Black Boxes
3) Employing Non-Humans
Development of ANT
1) Translate other interest to your own
2) Prepare Allies to translate negotiate interests
3) Establish more BLACK BOXES
After industrial revolution in 19 century begin to work with technology in the organization, and in 20 century organizations and factories inter the computer to their work especially the use of internet and wireless technology.
1- Informate

2- Downsizing (rightsizing)

3-Outsourcing

4-Telecommuting (teleworking)
HSBC
Holdings
According to the Business Insider website,
HSBC
Holdings, an international banking and financial services concern, laid off 5,000 people in 2011 and has plans to lay off 25,000 more.

HSBC
Holdings has already shut down its operations in Russia and Poland, the site notes, and closed 195 branches, many in New York.
Newspapers & magazine
Writer/Journalist
Newspapers and magazines do not require journalists to work from the agency itself.
In fact, most journalists complete their work on the road or from home, but still maintain an office or desk at the company they work for.
Since journalists can do research, interviews and write from home, this is a desirable job for individuals looking to telecommute.
Agnosticism
: which means that no point of view is privileged than the other and that interception is censored , which are actors engaged in controversy
Symmetry
: that actors whether they are social technical material or immaterial are treated equally
Free Association
: the reference actor follows the actors observing and identifying the way they define and redefine themselves there is no actor prior category
Agnosticism

Symmetry

free association
ANT
evolved from the work of
Michel Callon
(
1991
) &
Bruno Latour
(
1992
)
at the
E'cole des Mines
in
Paris.
Forming a network
Involves negotiation

Occur in four (4) moments:
1)
Problematization
2)
Interessement
3)
Enrollment
4)
Mobilization

Translation
Critical network channels
Ensure communication pass through domain
Indispensable to network
Obligatory Points of Passage (OPP)
Creating text and communication artifacts
Example (conference paper, journal article)
Actors use inscription to….

Seek individual objectives
Network objective
Cooptation
Inscription
Black Box
Device or system
Used for a set of commands
Example
Other influential system
Determinants social interaction and outcomes
Stress the interaction b/w material and human factors
Example of actants
Function of actants
Actants
ANT
Latour
: the strength of the
ANT
lies not in “
Unity
” but in “
H
eterogeneity
"
It
refuse
s
normative order, objectivity and hierarchy.
ANT
help
s
us to understand the ways
in which we adopt technology as an extension of the self.
ACTOR NETWORK THEORY ?!
ANT
The
ANT
is

decentralized
.
ANT
smooth running causes Social order effect; that begins to break down when certain actors (Humans or Non) are removed.
eg. removal of phones, banks or the president may result in break-downs in the order.
Any actor, whether person, object or organization, is equally important to
a social network.
ANT
Agnosticism
free association
Symmetry
Finally,
ANT
claims:

Actants
Black box
Cooptation
Inscription
Obligatory Points of Passage (OPP)
Translation
DNA & double helix
THANK YOU
Although this development brought some disadvantages, I would argue that the benefits outweigh the disadvantages
Technology has facilitated communication in many ways :
Full transcript