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Transcript of civil war
In the first major land battle of the Civil War, a large Union force under General Irvin McDowell is routed by a Confederate army under General Pierre G.T. Beauregard.Three months after the Civil War erupted at Fort Sumter, Union military command still believed that the Confederacy could be crushed quickly and with little loss of life. In July, this overconfidence led to a premature offensive into northern Virginia by General McDowell. Searching out the Confederate forces, McDowell led 34,000 troops–mostly inexperienced and poorly trained militiamen–toward the railroad junction of Manassas, located just 30 miles from Washington, D.C. Alerted to the Union advance, General Beauregard massed some 20,000 troops there and was soon joined by General Joseph Johnston, who brought some 9,000 more troops by railroad.On the morning of July 21, hearing of the proximity of the two opposing forces, hundreds of civilians–men, women, and children–turned out to watch the first major battle of the Civil War. The fighting commenced with three Union divisions crossing the Bull Run stream, and the Confederate flank was driven back to Henry House Hill. However, at this strategic location, Beauregard had fashioned a strong defensive line anchored by a brigade of Virginia infantry under General Thomas J. Jackson. Firing from a concealed slope, Jackson’s men repulsed a series of Federal charges, winning Jackson his famous nickname “Stonewall.”
bull run s:July 21, 1861
In this second battle, Major General John Pope, appointed by President Abraham Lincoln in March 1862 to command the newly formed Army of Virginia, was soundly beaten by Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, due in part to Pope’s misapprehension of the battlefield, confused orders and the reluctance of other Union commanders to come to his aid. Confederate lieutenant general Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and Lt. Gen. James Longstreet hemmed in and crushed the Federals. Unlike the full-scale rout of inexperienced Union troops that occurred during the First Battle of Bull Run, in Second Bull Run, Pope and his more experienced troops made a determined stand that allowed the army to retreat in an orderly fashion after darkness fell.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Aug 28, 1862 – Aug 30, 1862
Manassas, twenty-six miles west of Washington DC, was a battlefield twice during the American Civil War. In July 1861 the Confederates won and the Union forces fled towards Washington. Killed and wounded totalled 3,500. The second battle, in late August 1862, was among General Robert E. Lee's greatest victories. He won with his 55,000 men against the 70,000 Federal troops, but at huge cost: 10,000 Federal and 9,000 Confederate soldiers were dead or wounded. The South was at its highwater mark and Lee was ready for his invasion of the North – the Antietam Campaign.
Location: Manassas, Virginia
Dates: August 28 – 30, 1862
Casualties: Union: 14,000 | Confederate: 8,000
Outcome: Confederate Victory
Soldiers Engaged: Union: 62,000 | Confederate: 50,000
Generals: Union: Major General John Pope | Confederate: General Robert E. Lee
In March, 1862, Lincoln demoted Maj. Gen. George McClellan from overall command of Union armies, giving him command of only of the Army of the Potomac. A new Army of Virginia was formed from various elements and Maj. Gen. John Pope, whose family had close connections to Lincoln, was chosen to lead it. Pope had achieved a victory at Island No. 10 in the Mississippi River and had shown verve at Corinth, Mississippi, but he was elevated to army command primarily because of his political leanings and approach to the war, which was much more aggressive than McClellan’s. Pope was not held in high esteem by most of his men or McClellan, who viewed him as vain, self-righteous, and obnoxious. In July 1862, Lincoln appointed General in Chief Henry W. Halleck to coordinate the effort between McClellan and Pope.
Lincoln had approved McClellan’s plan to advance with the Army of the Potomac against the Confederate capitol of Richmond, Virginia, in what is known as the Peninsula Campaign. To make it easier for McClellan to attack Richmond from the east, Pope was to distract Lee by attacking the Virginia Central Railroad near Gordonsville 65 miles northwest of Richmond. However, McClellan’s cautious advance was thrown back in the Seven Days Battle.
On August 25, Jackson began a rapid march north around Pope while Longstreet remained facing Pope on the Rappahannock. Pope assumed Jackson was heading towards the Shenandoah Valley and, under orders from Halleck to hold, remained where he was, defending the Rappahannock crossings. Jackson was able to turn his army east, passing through Thoroughfare Gap in the Bull Run Mountains, advancing toward Bristoe Station, a lightly defended whistle stop southwest of Manassas Junction. Following the easy capture of Bristoe Station, Jackson pushed into Manassas Junction and captured the Union supply depot there on August 27—which was perhaps the best day in his men’s military career, due to the large amount of food and supplies they were able to obtain. They burned what they couldn’t carry.
Today the wide open spaces around a visitor centre are reminders of the carnage. Amid gun carriages, memorials, rebuilt farmhouses on the rolling plain, is a statue of 'Stonewall' Jackson, whose name passed into the dictionary from the first battle (commonly referred to as Bull Run by Yankees). In an exhibition is the jacket worn by Charles Robert Norris who died, aged seventeen, on July 21st, 1861, leading his company as part of Jackson's brigade line on Henry Hill, and quoted as saying 'come on boys, quick, we can whip them'. His body was found by his brother the next day.
lmb ; he said that cotten candy was the best candy from the war they also said that he was a beast .
ihasn ; well was there some sad part yes when they ran out of laughlatfy.
imb; he miss chicken.