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Copy of The Design and Manufacturing of Airplane Wings
Transcript of Copy of The Design and Manufacturing of Airplane Wings
and Steven X.S. Bauer. Wing Design: Five types of stress affect airplane wings: 1. Tension
5. Bending Increased drag = Higher compression and shear forces http://etc.usf.edu Wings are subjected to bending stresses in flight Shear, tensile, and compression stresses in bolts, rivets and spars. Longer wings are subjected to higher bending stresses Other factors such as aerial maneuvers, sudden wind gusts, and hard landings can increase the stresses on the wings. http://bayourenaissanceman.blogspot.com/ RAAF F-111 wing displacement of 7 feet under 7.33g force Aluminum Criteria:
Materials need to be lightweight
Strong and resistant to stress in flight
Durable for extended use Aerospace Aluminum, Al 7075
has a comparable strength to other metals
cost effective for manufacturers http://www.makeitfrom.com/material-data/?for=7075-AlZn5.5MgCu-Aluminum Boeing 787 vs. Boeing 777 Composites: engineered material made from fibers of more than one kind
More resistant to tension than to compressive forces
Commonly used near fuselages to reduce maintenance for tension
Average 20% in weight savings http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/articles/qtr_4_06/article_04_2.html Composite Materials vs. Aluminum Alloy Boeing 787 Airbus 380 Wing Failure By January 2012, Type 1 cracks were found in almost all of the first 20 A380s in service.
In February 2012, more serious Type 2 cracks were found in 2 Qantas A380s.
European Aviation Safety Agency ordered all 67 A380s in service to be inspected. How it happened: Composite aluminum bracket: Airbus engineers used 7449 Aluminum for brackets.
Reduced weight of aircraft by 300kg Wing area: 9000 square ft, large enough to park 70 cars
Total weight of aircraft: 300,000 kg.
2000 brackets used to attach each wing exterior to wing ribcage Type 1 cracks in bolt hole: Around 2 cm in length
First discovered on Nov. 4th, 2010 in Singapore Type 2 cracks in rib feet: Forced airlines to inspect all 67 A380s in service Proposed solution: Retrofit all A380s in service
Replace 23 hybrid ribs with ribs of 7010 aluminum
Redesign and replace rib feet
Fix will be available in 2013
Estimated cost: Upwards of 500 million euro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Titan-crystal_bar.JPG Materials http://www.matter.org.uk/matscicdrom/manual/co.html Different steps aimed at establishing at first a standard model and then modifying that model based on changes in different parameters. Take home? 1) Preliminary design: establish base-line standard wing
2) Initial design: aerodynamics characteristics of baseline wings and modified airfoil thickness
3) Final design: best wing configurations of initial designs and wing asymmetries. 3 Design Steps Major Principle:
To take maximum advantage of naturally occurring flow fields and the resultant pressure distribution.
Lower surface geometry to have as large of an area as possible Design Philosophy Using Euler’s analysis: different predictions of lift and drag are generated corresponding to different asymmetries
Combination of different
modifications/finalization Final Design Variations in airfoil thickness
Variations in max thickness
Airfoil symmetry from
0 to 90 reduces drag Initial Design Zero-lift wave drag assumed
Determine angle of wing
Near-conical geometry Preliminary Design 1) Manufacture Components
2) Assembly of Structural Components
3) Addition of Other Components Airplane manufacturing over the years... Parts of the Wing Manufacturing the Parts Creep Forming A380 has 25,500 parts from over 50 manufacturers Automated machining cell for stringers - 200 km per year Milling machines produce the skins New "strip milling" heat and pressure stress material into desired shape Template -> Vacuum Packing -> Autoclave Wing Testing Why are wings tested? Assembly of Parts Separate components are brought together
Rivets and bolts to fasten them
750,000 fasteners on the A380
Example: Electroimpact Stage 0: Panel Assembly Stage 1: Wing Major Tools http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/IABG_Test_Setup_A380_Dresden_bent_wing.jpg http://www.airliners.net/photo/Emirates/Airbus-A380-861/2133595/L/&sid=50f6901bdd79306c306d5bfb8e076a66 Wings are complex systems http://www.airliners.net/photo/Germanwings/Airbus-A320-211/0375071/L/&sid=906dc27c24f9050adfaae34caf08c084 What tests are carried out? http://blog.flightstory.net/wp-content/uploads/787-wing-load-structural-tests.jpg Ultimate Load Test Hydraulic System Tests http://www.flowmaster.com/images/Aircraft_Hydraulics.jpg Flaps and Slats Tests http://www.airliners.net/photo/Boeing/Boeing-747-8JK/2157972/L/&sid=8733205d4aa9cecd3819b079788cee82 http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/VirtualAero/BottleRocket/airplane/Images/flap.gif Final Touches Wiring, hydraulics, anti-corrosion paint, moving parts Flaps, Slats, and Spoilers http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/aero/virtual/demo/aeronautics/tutorial/images/flap,slat,spoiler.gif Preliminary Design of a fast and efficient single seat 500kg transcontinental aircraft Roman Sandoval Villamuera Stresses on Airplane Wings Materials Wing Design Wing Construction http://siag.project.ifi.uio.no/problems/grandine/Composites01.jpg http://www.aviationnews.eu/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/b787-being-built-03.jpg Titanium Final Design Conclusion Take Away References Increasing demand and costs of air travel is spurring continuous innovation in the field of wing design and construction.
New materials and construction techniques are being developed. http://www.allstar.fiu.edu/aero/flight12.htm http://www.cadinfo.net/s6-mechanical-engineering/c69-aerospace/building-the-worlds-largest-passenger-aircraft-wings/ http://www.cadinfo.net/s6-mechanical-engineering/c69-aerospace/building-the-worlds-largest-passenger-aircraft-wings/ http://www.electroimpact.com/A380S1FIX/gallery.asp http://www.electroimpact.com/A380E4380/gallery.asp http://www.airbus.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a380family/ http://www.airbus.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a380family/ http://www.electroimpact.com/A380E4380/gallery.asp http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Airbus_A380_blue_sky.jpg http://boein-787-news.blogspot.com/ http://www.illustration-art-solutions.com/aviation-illustration.html Any questions? http://brendanomeara.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/man-question-mark.jpg