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Inequalities of Gender and Age
Transcript of Inequalities of Gender and Age
Sex and Gender Identity
Inequalities of Gender and Age
Defining Male and Female
Does anatomy = destiny?
Believing that boys and girls all act a certain way is called
If this were true, all females/males (regardless of culture) would act the same.
This theory lacks scientific proof
Gender Identity is based on culture
Researchers are continually looking for scientific differences.
Biology, Culture, Behavior
Differences in the Brain
Men have more activity in the region that is tied to adaptive evolutionary responses.
Women's brains are more active in the highly developed areas that deals with emotional expression.
Women are also more likely to use both sides of their brain
Biological Difference and Social Behavior
Bio determinists look at similar behavior in several different cultures
Men~ Younger, attractive women
Women~Older, richer men
Research on transsexualism negates the ideas of bio determinists.
Sociologists and Gender Related Behavior
Its a mixture
Case Study~people of New Guinea
Arapesh people-both men and women behave in a way that is consistent with traditional female roles.
Mundugumar people- Men and women are both "masculine"
Tchambuli people- reverse of Western culture
Gender roles are NOT fixed a birth.
Nature vs. Nurture... No one can prove either side.
Sooooooo many variables
Role models play a big part
Functionalism and Gender
Early humans found that the division of labor btwn male and female was most efficient
Men were bigger, so they hunted and protected. Also, they were expendable.
The divisions are no longer necessary because of technology.
Traditional roles have created problems for modern society.
Conflict Theory and Gender
It is beneficial for men to keep women down...
Gender Apartheid in Afghanistan
Gender Roles are outdated, but men want to keep their power.
Glass Ceiling- invisible barrier stopping women from achieving all that they can
Women as a minority
Biological determinism leads to sexism
There has been progress in the last decades
Women have begun to hold key positions in business roles.
The percentage of female college graduates has tripled since 1970.
There are still gaps
Occupational and Economic Inequality
Types of Women's Jobs
Women are concentrated in lower status occupations
Office and administrative assistant type jobs
2010= $.81 per $1 of male earnings
At the current rate, it will take another 30 years before they are equal.
The Effects of Race and Ethnicity on Earnings
Legal and Political Inequality
Bias in Law
No guarantees for health insurance costs for pregnancy related costs. (Vasectomies are covered)
It is very difficult to prove sexual discrimination in the work place.
Historical biases (because they're ridiculous)
Women cannot keep their last names after marriage
No working in toxic areas (because pregnancy)
Cannot lift over 30 lbs
Certain crimes are associated with women and men are often not charged the same.
Women in Politics
The number of Women holding public office in the U.S. is among the lowest in the Western World.
F~ Post industrialism has changed work.
Harder for older people to keep up with technology
C~ Competition over scarce resources (jobs)
Force older workers into retirement
SI~ Stereotypes of old people foster negative feelings against them.
Economics and The Elderly
36% of elderly near or at poverty level.
Even worse when you break it down by race
Older women are among the poorest people in America
Social Security only provides 50-55% of most people's wages. (Can't really retire)
Political Power and the Elderly
Most active voters
Are not unified so their voice is not as strong.
Many Americans are part of interest groups to target ageism
AARP & Gray Panthers