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The Effects of Temperature Change and Activity on the Human Body

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Amy B

on 15 January 2014

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Transcript of The Effects of Temperature Change and Activity on the Human Body

The Effects of Temperature Change and Physical Activity on the Human Body
Situation
In this situation the individual starts in a warm car transitions to skiing downhill in -15 degrees Celsius weather and then returns to a warm chalet.

Your endocrine system is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate your body's growth, metabolism, and sexual development and function. The hormones are released into the bloodstream and transported to tissues and organs throughout your body.
Nervous System
Excretory System
The excretory system works to get rid of the body's waste and maintain a clean internal environment. Nephrons are specialized tubules that filter waste from the blood. They are used to regulate water balance in the body and conduct excretion.
Looking at this situation from two perspectives the first being change in shell temperature which is the temperature near the bodies surface and core temperature which is the temperature in body structures deep in the skin and subcutaneous layer. The shell temperature is affected by the external factors (cold weather) and the core temperature is affected by internal factors (physical activity- skiing).
Negative feedback loops adjust the level of secretion of hormones that act in opposing ways. This creates a balance in their effects that maintains homeostasis in the body.
The hypothalamus is the center for
thermoregulation
and acts as the bodies thermostat. The peripheral thermoreceptors in the skin send messages to the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus then produces behavioral and physiological responses.
the regulation of internal temperature by negative feedback mechanisms
Hypothalamus
When you start exercising, the thyroid gland (located at the base of the neck) sends out hormones that regulate the body’s temperature, heart rate and blood pressure. It also regulates the alertness and focus that are needed to work at a high intensity.
Changes in Core Temperature
Inside cells, thyroid hormones (Thyroxine (T4)
Triiodothyronine (T3) and Calcitonin) stimulate enzymes involved with glucose oxidation, thereby controlling cellular temperature and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Through these actions, the thyroid regulates the body’s metabolic rate and

heat production
.
The endocrine system and the hormones it secretes enhance the ability of the body to respond to stressful internal and external stimuli.
Humans respond to stress with multiple physical changes, including endocrine changes, that prepare them to react or retreat.
This process is known as the “fight-or-flight” response.
Endocrine changes associated with this response include increased secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex, increased secretion of glucagon by the islet cells of the pancreas, and increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla.
Stress can also be factor within this situation. Skiing could potentially be a dangerous and stressful activity. For example if the individual decided to run a hill that was too advanced for them such as a double black diamond, their body would be put in a very stressful situation causing the endocrine system to secrete hormones to deal with this stressful stimuli.
What is the Endocrine System?
What is the Excretory System
Change in Shell Temperature
The hypothalamus is unlike other endocrine glands. It is a region of the brain and thus part of the nervous system.
The hypothalamus uses a special type of hormone called neurohormones. Neurohormones travel along nerve cells, diffuse in the blood stream and then travel through the blood into the pituitary gland.
The hypothalamus itself is controlled by input from other parts of the nervous system.
The endocrine system and the nervous system both coordinate the activities of body parts.
The nervous system reacts quickly to external and internal stimuli, whereas the endocrine system is slower to act but its effects are longer lasting.
Relationship between Nervous System & Endocrine System
Change in Shell Temperature
The excretory system helps maintain homeostasis by removing all waste material from the body; the skin sweats (which also helps to cool the body); the kidneys filter chemicals in the blood; the liver filters toxins and acids from the blood; and the colon allows solid waste to pass from the body
Endocrine System and Stress
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine System
Changes in Core Temperature
What is the Nervous System
Change in Shell Temperature
If the shell temperature drops below the set point, the body responds by constricting the arteries that supply blood to the skin. Shivering and “goose bumps” also regulate the internal temperature. Muscle contractions during shivering generate thermal energy, and the raised hairs in the skin trap air, helping to maintain warmth.
Change in Core Temperature
The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The Central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord and The Peripheral nervous system is made up of the Somatic and the Autonomic nervous systems.
If the core temperature rises above the set point, the body relaxes arteries to allow excess thermal energy to exit via the skin. In a small number of mammals, including humans, the skin contains large numbers of sweat glands. These secrete sweat onto the skin, which removes thermal energy as it evaporates.
Thermoreceptors on the skin and within the body alert the nervous system to any changes in external or internal temperature.
During exercise or in stressful situations, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is stimulated. Its postganglionic neurons release norepinephrine, and stimulate the release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine by the adrenal medulla. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine increase the metabolic rate of body cells.
When you exercise, you may begin to sweat as your body tries to keep down its temperature. Sweating removes water and salts from your body together with a small amount of urea. As the level of sodium in your bloodstream drops, ADH secretion also falls, and your kidneys produce urine that is more dilute.
The hypothalamus regulates excretion by producing anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), which acts to reduce the amount of water removed from the blood by the kidneys and thereby to reduce the rate of excretion.
References
Endocrine System [Internet]. 2001:adam.com; [cited 2014 Jan 12] . Available from: http://www.pennmedicine.org/health_info/body_guide/reftext/html/endo_sys_fin.html

Excretory system [Internet].:Science Daily ; [cited 2014 Jan 12] . Available from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/e/excretory_system.htm

Miller J. Does Exercise Affect the Urinary System? [Internet]: Live Strong; [2011 Sept 01, cited 2014 Jan 12] . Available from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/529262-does-exercise-affect-the-urinary-system/

What is the Connection between the Nervous System and Homeostasis [Internet] : Wise Geek ; cited 2014 Jan 12] . Available from: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-connection-between-the-nervous-system-and-homeostasis.htm

Fraser, Douglas; LeDrew, Barry; Vavitsas, Angela; White-McMahon, Meredith. 2012. Biology 12. Toronto, Canada: Nelson Education Ltd.
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