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Transcript of Arabic Calligraphy
- three types: floral, square, and archaic
- used earlier for Qur'an; now written on metal,
wood, tile, glass, bricks, etc.
- horizontal lines and wider Calligraphy Chelsea, Summaya, Hidir Styles of Calligraphy Deewani Kufi Thuluth Deewani Naskh Calligraphy Origin of Arabic
Calligraphy What is
Calligraphy? -Calligraphy is decorative handwriting. -Life was hard before Islam. -The arts of speaking and writing were appreciated. - reformed by Ibn al- Bawaab (10th century)
- “to copy”
- mostly used for the Qur’an (“servant of Qur’an”)
- script is curvy; endings always points upwards
- The writing is very neat and clear. - created in 7th century; developed in 10th century
- "one third”; every letter slants in one third
- unlike Kufi, Thuluth was rarely used in writing the Qur’an
- curved letters with pointy heads
- known for its complex picture
- letters are mostly stucked together
- most powerful style; if you don’t know how
to write Thuluth, then you don’t know calligraphy
perfectly. - invented by Housam Rumi (16th century);
- developed by Ottoman Empire (19th century)
- named after the divan, or the high governmental body
in the Ottoman government
- based on Riqa and Nastaliq styles. - very decorative script; cursive and
letters are joined
-dots are added for artistic appeal.
- lines ascend from left to right.
- hard to read, ensured confidentiality, and
prevented forgery. -It is the art of producing decorative
handwriting or lettering with a pen
or brush. Arabic -A person would be raised in rank due to his eloquence in speech. - Arabic script is derived from the Aramaic Nabataean alphabet. Origin of Arabic
-New Muslims interpreted the art of writing
as an abstract expression of Islam. Arabic Alphabet Farsi Reqa'a -Cultural diversity led to two major events:
birth of calligraphic schools such as Ta'liq (Persia)
and Deewani (Turkey). Uses of Calligraphy -There was a need to reform the Arabic language.
- Gained popularity within the Muslim world. -Reform done in the Umayyad era (added diacritical
marks for non-Arab Muslims). - Calligraphy is used in the Qur’an,
inscription of coins, architecture, books,
Saudi flag etc.
- It is written/read from right to left. - 1, 2, 3, etc. were originally Arabic. - No human or animal art is
permissible. - 26 letters - No “capital” letters. - Ayaat from the Qur’an, ahadeeth (Prophetic narrations), shi’ir (poetry),
old proverbs, stories, documents, etc. Styles of Calligraphy - Reqa’a (handwriting)
- Naskh (computer)
- Kufi - The simplest writing
- Derived from Thuluth
- Invented mid-18th century by Ibn Muqlah
- Means “a piece of cloth”
- Written in Turkish and Arabic.
- Rounded structure; letters are mostly straight
- Used to write hadeeth. - developed by the Persians (15th century)
- known as “Nasta’liq"
- mostly used in Persia, India and Pakistan
- never written with vowels
- many poems are written with this writing
- used for tattoos, fashion designs, and graphic art - Ottomans used it to write official documents.
- only scribes of the Ottoman court knew the
rules of the script (secret of sultan’s palace)
- gold paint was used to write documents when writing in the Deewani script. Deewani Calligraphy Calligraphy -Calligraphy comes from Greek.
"kallos" + "graphos" = Calligraphy Arabic
Calligraphy Spread of Arabic
Calligraphy -People lived nomadic lifestyles. -They valued much of language in writing and poetry. Origin of Arabic
Calligraphy -This differs from culture to culture, and from person to person. Spread of Arabic
Calligraphy Spread of Arabic
Calligraphy Reqa'a Naskh Farsi Thuluth Sources Pictures: Google
http://www.arabiccalligraphy.com/classic-types/ Sources http://sweetfernstudio.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/calligraphy0001.jpg
http://kakayicalligraphy.webs.com/thuluthstyle.htm Sources http://kakayicalligraphy.webs.com/diwanistyle.htm
calligraphy activities: http://issuu.com/idll/docs/arabic_calligraphy_activities_book_ Look at this image and try to trace it on a white piece of paper. Try your best and have fun. :) Rubric