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PSYC - Alcohol Fueled Violence

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Gerald Porter

on 28 May 2013

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Transcript of PSYC - Alcohol Fueled Violence

Alcohol in Australia Binge drinking Social effects Excessive consumption of alcohol Pre-loading Problem Causes Social acceptance Depression Availability Peer pressure Effects Health effects Alcohol fueled violence
Increased self confidence
Loss of friends
Relationship problems
Heart damage
Cancer
Dependence
Anxiety
Delusions (non exhaustive list) Alcohol Fueled Violence
in Australia Alcohol Fueled Violence Excessive consumption of alcohol in Australia Alcohol Education and Rehabilitation Foundation (2011) 1.4 million Australians consume six or more standard drinks on a typical occasion.
Over one-third (35%) of drinkers consume alcohol to get drunk.
More than 70,000 Australians are victims of alcohol-related assaults every year
In 2007, alcohol-related violence generated 367 deaths and 14,000 hospitalization. National Drug Research Institute (2009) Main contributing
factors to AFV What is
Social Acceptance ? What is
Binge Drinking ? What is
Pre-Loading ? Hawkins, Catalano & Miller, (1992) Norms favouring higher drinking related to more alcohol consumed
Consumption rates differ among ethnic groups
Family attitudes and models of drug use related to rates of alcohol abuse
Older brothers modeling drug use and advocating it is associated with younger brothers’ use
Stronger correlation than with parents’ modelling Drinking is influenced by youth (mis)perceptions of how their peers drink. If misperceptions can be corrected, young people may drink less. Moreira, Smith, & Foxcroft, (2009) Ritchie, Ritchie & Ward (2009) Ritchie, Ritchie & Ward (2009) Heavy episode of drinking occurring at one seating. Many young adults pre-load their drinking before heading out to the bars.
Buy drink from retail store, drink it before going to pub or club in order to avoid paying high drink prices at bars or clubs.
Often “social preloading” involves going to friends’ houses before going out.
Can intentionally or incidentally involve excessive consumption of alcohol. National drug strategy household survey (2007) The total cost of alcohol misuse in Australia was found to be $36 billion each year. Who is the target group? "The consumption of 5 or more drinks in a row by men - or 4 or more in a row by women - at least once in the previous 2 weeks." Kids Help Org Between 1995 and 2006, there has been an increase in alcohol-related hospitalization in all states. Revamp of alcohol taxation (Matt).
Full ban on alcohol advertising (Angela). INTERVENTIONS Wouldn’t community based interventions make for a happier end?
Bold claims – 47% decrease! (Holder et al., 2000) Really…?
6% decrease in Actual consumption.
6% decrease in traffic accidents.
“less self-choice” policies is likely the cause. Why TAX? Anderson & Baumberg, 2006 review multiple interventions in order to find most effective.
Summary shows “community intervention” as the lowest effect with highest cost.
Miller et al., 2012 Study in Geelong typical type of results. Why TAX? Miller et al, Results So why do community interventions fail?

Alcohol is a drug:
“Alcohol is a psychoactive substance and its consumption in moderation can lead to feelings of relaxation and euphoria, causing it to be consumed widely in many social scenarios and across the socio-economic spectrum. Alcohol is also an addictive drug, however, and its misuse is associated with a wide range of related adverse consequences that can lead to significant harm to the individual and society.”
(Lee & Forsythe, 2011) Alcohol IS a drug… Anderson and Baumberg (2006) plus Loxlet et al (2004) did large scale international studies outlining an increase in Taxation being the most efficient

Empirically highly effective. TAXATION! (it’s not all bad)
Cook and Moore (1993), findings concluded that higher beer taxes would lead to significant reductions (over 5%) in homicides, assaults, rapes and burglaries. More supporting evidence Markowitz and Grossman (1998) summary focused on child abuse (USA)

Findings: 10% increase in beer tax = reduction overall child abuse by 1.2% and severe child abuse by 2.3%

May seem small but this would lower the amount of severely abused children in the US by approx. 132,500 kids And more… Tax in place now? Four taxes…

GST (covers ALL goods and services)
Customs duties (only applies to imported alcohol)
Excise duties (higher % higher tax)
Wine equalisation tax (% of wholesale price) Good idea but how is it done? Utilize excise duties!
Include a Wine element
Higher price = decreased affordability (especially when needing excess amounts = pre-loading and binge drinking)
Customizable - addresses trends and enables targeting of at-risk groups! Solution fairly simple… Individuals who have extremely low executive functioning will most likely respond with aggressive behaviour when provoked in an intoxicated state or not.
(Giancola & Zeichner, 2000 )

The influence of alcohol will have little effect on violent and aggressive behaviour for individuals who have very high or very low levels of executive functioning.
(Giancola & Zeichner, 2000 ) The reserve capacity of executive functioning affects whether individuals will be highly effected by alcohol consumption Increased violence & aggression caused by the excess consumption of alcohol is related to the level of executive functioning ability that an individual possesses when in a sober state.

Alcohol consumption is more likely to cause aggression and violence in individuals who have low executive functioning capacity when they are sober (Chermack Giancola, 1995; Giancola &Zeichner,2000 ). Alcohol has the worst effects for individuals with low executive functioning ability when in sober state The most pronounced effects of consumption of alcohol occurs in the realm of executive functioning

Research has shown that severe alcohol intoxication caused the largest degree of cognitive impairment on the ability to perform neuropsychological tests which measured executive functioning such as information appraisal, attention, judgment, planning.
(Giancola Evert Oscar-Berman & Hutner,1993) Alcohol has most pronounced detrimental effects on executive functioning Alcohol consumption affects detrimentally a large range of cognitive functions that includes perceptual-motor skills, memory, and both visual and spatial learning.
(Giancola Tarter, Jones,Simpson, & Vega, 1971)

Alcohol consumption in excess also effects attention and also visual discrimination.
(Giancola Post, Lott, Maddock, Nicholson, Andre, Tyrrell, Wang, & Leibowitz, 1995) Alcohol has detrimental effects on cognitive functioning Research suggests that alcohol induced aggression and violence may be caused by a reduction in individuals’ self-awareness (Hull, 1981).

According to this theory alcohol reduces one’s self-awareness because it causes a disruption in a person’s ability to interpret social and environmental cues that allow them to behave in an appropriate manner (Giancola &Zeichner,2000). Alcohol Reduces Self-Awareness The Psychological Aspects of Alcohol Related Violence Individuals’ ability to manage important cues from their environment which are essential in the ability to inhibit an aggressive or violent reaction.

If individuals moderate their alcohol intake they are more likely to retain more of their executive function capacity and have a greater ability to inhibit an aggressive or violent reaction.
(Giancola & Zeichner, 2000) The loss of executive function capacity effects individuals’ processing of environmental cues Questions? Over $109 million spent on alcohol advertisements in 2008.
(AdNews, 2009)

Annually in Australia $50 million of sponsorship for major sporting events comes from alcohol.
(Lee, 2008) Alcohol Advertising in Australia Promotion of alcohol increases consumption rates

Increase in per-capita consumption related to increase in alcohol-fuelled violence.
(Room Babor & Rehm, 2005).

Reduction in overall consumption is required. Consumption and Violence
France implemented ban in 1991.
Sport has not suffered & alcohol consumption decreased.
Restricting alcoholic advertisements found to reduce consumption.
Alcohol consumption could be reduced by 16%
$5,150 million of total social costs saved through use of full ban.
For partial ban, up to $3,210 million of social costs saved.
(Lapsley & Collins, 2008) Restrictions on Advertising Phasing out of alcohol promotions across all media
Reductions of promotional advertisements will prevent normalization and glorification of alcohol
Discourage “social-norm” of heavy drinking among young people
Expected decrease in consumption

expected reduce rates of alcohol-fueled violence. Intervention Advertising Note. From What do Australians Drink? Analyses by demographic and social characteristics, September 2012, Retrieved from http://www.fare.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/What-Australians-Drink.pdf Exposure to young adults Young people regularly exposed to advertisements which glorify and normalize alcohol consumption.
(Fielder, Donovan & Ouschan, 2009)
Encourages the “social-norm” of heavy drinking amongst youth.
Predicts drinking intentions, expectancies and behaviours.
(Anderson, De Bruijn, Angus, Gorgon & Hastings, 2009)
Sport is primary vehicle for marketing alcohol to the general public.
Young people associate alcohol consumption with success/being Australian. Young people attracted to ads which highlight alcohol affordability.
Increases in binge – drinking and pre-loading .
Reducing alcoholic promotions/advertisements may reduce rates of binge-drinking & pre-loading. Reduce binge-drinking and pre-loading Alcohol products labeled with health warnings
In 2007 study by World Health Organization (WHO) found to influence attitudes, intention to change drinking habits, willingness to discuss drinking, and willingness to intervene with hazardous drinking behaviours
Expected to influence perceptions of drinking amongst youth and make them aware of health risks, which may reduce consumption and ultimately violence Health Warnings on alcoholic product’s
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