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ECY Chapter 9 Emotional and Behavior Disorders - Special Education in Contemporary Society

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Lisa Cranford

on 24 June 2017

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Transcript of ECY Chapter 9 Emotional and Behavior Disorders - Special Education in Contemporary Society

Chapter Nine
Individuals With Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders
Defining Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders
Federal definition of emotional disturbance: “a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance”
Inability to learn not explained by other factors
Inability to have interpersonal peer relationships
Inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
Pervasive mood of depression or unhappiness
Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
Dimensions common to most definitions of emotional and behavioral disorders:
Frequency (rate) of occurrence
Intensity (severity) of behavior
Duration (length of time) of behavior
Age-appropriateness of the behavior
Disturbed and disturbing behavior
Classification of Individuals with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Clinically derived classification systems
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) provides criteria
Diagnosis involves observation of behavior over time and across different settings
Statistically derived classification systems
Involves categories of disordered behaviors
Externalizing behaviors
Internalizing behaviors
Brief History of the Field
Historical relationship between insanity and intellectual disability
The Mental Hygiene Movement
Early research on emotional or behavioral disorders
The birth of a specialized field of study
The emergence of conceptual models
Prevalence of Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders
The U.S. Department of Education reports that 418,068 students ages 6-21 received special education services for an emotional disturbance during the 2008-2009 school year
Fifth largest category for children this age
The most underidentified disability category due to social stigma and variability in state's identification procedures and definitions
Suspected Etiologies of Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders
Biological risk factors
Genetic influence: autism, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s syndrome, depression
Biological factors: infection, lead poisoning, toxin exposure
Psychosocial (environmental) risk factors
Parental discord, poverty, maltreatment, maternal rejection, poor health care, poor nutrition
Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Research on Resiliency
Some children exposed to adverse conditions do not develop emotional or behavioral disorders because they are resilient
Research on Positive Behavioral Support
Punishments typically are ineffective
School-wide approach to encourage students’ positive behaviors and effective decision making
Characteristics of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Learning characteristics
Range of intellectual abilities, chronic school failure, absenteeism, grade retention, school dropout
Social characteristics
Difficulty building and maintaining relationships, aggressive behavior, experience rejection, externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Language/communication characteristics
Deficits in the areas of pragmatics, receptive, and expressive language and limited or inappropriate language use
Assessing Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Assessment strategies include:
Interviews with student, parents, and teachers
Examination of student records
Parent, teacher, and student rating scales
Observations in multiple natural settings
Medical evaluations
Standardized academic and IQ testing
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
Strength-based assessments
Other informal assessment strategies
Physical Environment Interventions
Time management
Transition management
Proximity and movement management
Classroom arrangement
Classroom ambiance
Academic and Instructional Interventions
Academic curriculum
Instructional delivery
Mnemonic strategies
Self-monitoring strategies
Curriculum-based measurement
Content enhancements
Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions
Social skills training

Interpersonal problem solving

Conflict resolution

Provision of related services

Crisis prevention and management programs/plans
Services for Young Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Early signs
Early identification
Early intervention
Transition into Adulthood
Emotional or behavioral disorders are a predictor for school failure, delinquency, adult psychiatric problems, and substance abuse
Absence of research on transition planning for adolescents with emotional or behavioral disorders
Interventions, such as wrap-around programs, should be started early and may need to be maintained throughout life
Support to graduate from high school and pursue higher education
Adults with Emotional
or Behavioral Disorders
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) offers protections to adults with emotional or behavioral disorders in the areas of postsecondary educational opportunities and employment.
Family-Centered Interventions
Family-centered approach to planning for children with emotional or behavioral disorders supports the family’s needs.
Recognize the family’s strengths and concerns
Home-school collaboration is essential
Issues of Diversity
Overrepresentation of African-American males in special education programs for children with emotional or behavioral disorders
Female students are underrepresented in special education programs for children with emotional or behavioral disorders
Trends, Issues, and Controversies
Qualified teacher shortages
Public policy and societal attitudes
Lack of interagency collaboration
Creating systems of care
Since the passage of PL 94-142 in 1975, only two changes have been made to this definition:
Autism became a separate disability category in 1990
Prior to 1997, the term used was serious emotional disturbance
occur in many settings, is habitual, and is part of the individual's behavior pattern
One study found that more than 50% of all school-aged children were perceived by their teacher to have behavior problems at some point during their elementary years
Children and youth (and even adults) commonly have periods in their lives that are characterized by conflict, crisis, depression, stress, and ineffective decision making
only a few behaviors are universally recognized as abnormal in every cultural group and across all social strata (i.e., self-injury, muteness, eating one's own feces)
Transient nature of problematic behavior
Variation in social and cultural standards
Historical relationship between insanity and mental retardation:
In 1886, a legal distinction was made between mental illness and mental retardation. Until then the two fields were viewed as synonymous
The Mental Hygiene Movement:
Influenced the study of children and youth with emotional disturbances in attempt to provide formal education and treatment
Early research on emotional and behavior disorders:
Schools and hospitals developed that were devoted to the care and education of children with emotional and behavior disorders
The birth of a specialized field of study:
1940 - 1960 marked the birth of special education for children with emotional or behavior disorders as a specialized field of study
In the 1960's, research began to appear in professional literature regarding classroom programs, practices, and curricula for children with emotional or behavior disorders:
Exact prevalence may be impossible to determine due to a variety of identification procedures and lack of consensus regarding what constitutes acceptable behavior
Resilient children display four characteristics:
socially competent
excellent problem-solving skills
develop clear goals
have high aspirations
positive behavior supports are strategies that proactively reinforce positive behavior rather than focusing on punishing negative behaviors
By incorporating students' interests into the curriculum, educators can enhance both the academic engagement of these students
What limited research is available suggests that students with emotional or behavior disorders benefit from certain teaching strategies
help students recall facts and relationships
such as assignment checklists - help students by providing the cues necessary to complete a task successfully
procedures for measuring growth to ensure there is a close match between content and student achievement
graphic organizers, content diagrams, semantic maps, advanced organizers, guided notes, Prezi-tations :-) study guides - anything that makes explicit the content to be learned, links concepts together and helps students link new content to previously learned content
while it is not the best video quality he does a great job explaining how you can connect pictures to words creating a mnemonic device to recall facts
on task behavior is incompatible with off-task and disruptive behavior
providing specific directions about how to move from one activity or place to another, establish routines, reward appropriate behavior
direct instruction to teach student appropriate social behaviors
teaching the "thinking" skills necessary to avoid and resolve interpersonal conflicts, resist peer pressure, and cope with their emotions and stress
somewhat like problem solving skills with additional instruction in negotiation and mediation
the 2004 amendments to IDEA require that related services be provided to help students with disabilities benefit from special education services
Teach educators how to effectively and proactively address student violence
A difficult temperament and early antisocial behavior appear to be significant indicators of later emotional or behavioral disorders. This is a persuasive argument for early intervention services
Adults are no longer protected under IDEA but are protected under Section 504
Adults are ensured reasonable accommodation but may need supports and services to successfully complete postsecondary training programs and obtain competitive employment
The family centered approach recognizes the central role that the family plays in the lives of individuals and focuses on the strengths and capabilities of the family as a unit
As an educator... you need to interact positively with parents as much as possible and be careful that your communications with parents are not primarily negative
over reliance on standardized tests that are not sensitive to cultural differences may impact identification of minority students
Female students with emotional or behavioral disorders tend to exhibit internalizing disorders that may go unnoticed as they tend to not be disruptive
Technology and Individuals with Emotional or Behavior Disorders
Numerous "low-tech" aids are available to assist educators in recording and documenting students' behavior
wrist counters, golf counters, bead-in-bag
video taping to later you as a self-evaluation tool
internet access as a reinforcer
computer soft ware/iPad, touches with apps for behavior, scheduling, transition management

Given the stressful challenges these students bring to school, many educators do not find job satisfaction when working with this population (Jones et al, 2004). This make teacher recruitment and retention in this are difficult.
Public policies, such as zero tolerance, often result in compromised service provision to students with emotion or behavioral disorders
If the needs of students with emotional and behavioral disorders are to be met, schools and services agencies must stop passing the buck and take joint responsibility for improving the outcomes for these students
A system of care model is defined as an integrated, community-based system that addresses the multiple domains of challenges encountered by children and youth with emotional and behavioral disorders and their families (Kutash et al., 2002)
Quiz Cue! such as having an intellectual disability or a disability such as down syndrome
Quiz Cue! The family history of emotional and behavior disorders is NOT assessed when interpreting the occurrence of an emotional or behavioral disorder
lots of great resources here... check it out!
Quiz Cue! know the 5 characteristics
Quiz Cue!
Quiz Cue!
Quiz Cue! Social maladjustment is often equated with Conduct Disorder, one of the most common psychiatric disorders among children and youth, and there have been many attempts to exclude these children and youth from special education and related services (Jensen, 2005).
a long period of time
to a marked degree
inability to learn
adversely affects a child's educational performance
Have all been targeted as ambiguous terms and criticized because at times they have been narrowly interpreted
Quiz Cue!
Quiz Cue! Clinically derived classification systems include:
descriptions of symptoms
indicators of severity

A psychiatric diagnosis DOES NOT automatically qualify a child for special education and related services.
True story: I had a student once, fourth grade, that had separation anxiety and in the mornings it would take me 45 minutes to get him out of the car and into the school building... hollering, crying, wouldn't release the car door handle... but once in the classroom he worked and acted like any typical peer and received all A's and B's... his disability (which was diagnosed by a physician, did not adversely affect his academic performance, therefore, he did not qualify for special education services.

Quiz Cue!
Quiz Cue!
regarding statistically derived classification systems... which of the following is an externalized disorder and which in internalized?
under control
aggressive, temper tantrums, acting out
over controlled
socially withdrawn
disturbing to others
Quiz Cue!
Some interesting findings in current research suggest that children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders rarely exhibit problems along only one dimension. Rather, they often have elevated levels along two or more dimensions frequently requiring multifaceted interventions designed to address a wide range of behaviors
Be sure to read chapter 9
Quiz Cue!
Review Figure 9.1 on page 297 and be able to order the path to long-term negative outcomes for at-risk children and youth
Quiz Cue!
A consistent finding of research has been that pupils with emotional or behavioral disorders typically score in the low-average range on measures of intelligence (Kauffman & Landrum, 2009; Vaughn, Levy, Coleman & Bos 2002)
Full transcript