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Geography Handbook

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Timothy Kerns

on 12 October 2017

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Transcript of Geography Handbook

This handbook covers basic information needed to investigate the world.
Geography Handbook
A. Symbols - these are used to show many things (capitals, resources, etc. Check the “legend” to find what they stand for.)
B. Colors - check the “legend” to find their significance
C. Lines of Longitude - lines that show distances east or west of the prime meridian.
D. Lines of Latitude - lines that show distance north or south of the equator.
I. Reading a Map - the following things are used by maps to show information
E. Compass Rose - shows North, South, East and West
F. Title - shows what the map will cover
G. Labels - words that name features on the map
H. Legend - also called a key. Explains the map’s symbols
I. Scale - compares a unit of length on the map to the same unit on the earth
....Reading a Map
III. Hemisphere
A. Longitude - lines that run north and south; also called meridians. Measured in degrees east or west of the Prime Meridian.

The Prime Meridian runs from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England.

B. Latitude - run east to west; also called parallels. Used to measure distance north or south of the equator.
II. Longitude and Latitude Lines - Imaginary lines that allow you to pinpoint a location on the earth.
B. Political Maps - Show features that humans have created (Ex: cities, states, countries)
VI. Types of Maps
A. Hemisphere equals half of the globe (East and West or North and South)
IV. Scale - How "zoomed in" is the map?
A. Large scale shows lots of detail
B. Small scale shows fewer details
V. Projections - different ways of showing the round earth on a flat map
A. Mercator - stretches land near the poles.
B. Azimuthal - “view from the top”, sizes and shapes are distorted
C. Homolosine - “peeled orange”, land is not distorted but distances are.
D. Robinson - less distortion but land shrinks near the top and bottom (poles)
Mercator Projection
Robinson Projection
Azimuthal Projection
A. Physical Maps - Show landforms and bodies of water. You can learn relative location and characteristics of places.
Thematic maps - Focus on specific ideas or concepts. (Ex: Climates, types of vegetation, natural resources, economic activity)
1. Qualitative Maps - colors, symbols, and dots used to show ideas
2. Cartograms - shows info other than actual shapes and sizes. The shape and size of countries is determined by the information being presented (Ex: oil reserves, wealth)
3. Flow-Line Maps - show movements of people, goods or ideas. (arrows)
Barometric Pressure Map Thematic Flow-line
Plant Map
Map of Large
Underwater Features
World Population
Thematic - Cartogram
Vegetation Cover
Thematic -
State Capitals
Migration Patterns
Thematic - Flowline
Thematic - Cartogram
U.S. Cities and
Land Forms
Political and Physical
U.S. Water Usage
Thematic - Qualitative
Native Plant
Species Map
Thematic - Cartogram
Migration Patterns
Thematic - Flowline
Time Zones
Worldwide time zones were established in 1884. The Prime Meridian runs through Greenwich, England. Each zone east of Greenwich is one hour later. Each zone to the west is one hour earlier.

The International Date Line is an imaginary line which marks the spot on the earth's surface where each new calendar day begins. The date just to the west of the International Date Line is one day later than the date just to the east of the line.
Time Zones
Thematic- Qualitative
Political Distribution
Homolosine Projection
Full transcript