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Chapter 22 Respiration: The Exchange of Gases
Christele J. Amoyanon 25 September 2012
Transcript of Chapter 22 Respiration: The Exchange of Gases
Let's start quiz #4 quiz#1 (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr quiz #8 Finished quiz #9 quiz #6 quiz #10 quiz #7 Respiration: The Exchange of Gases 1. Define the concept of respiration;
2. Cite various ways of gas exchange among organisms;
3. Differentiate the process in gas transport;
4. Identify the adaptations done by animals and man in respiration. Trivia Did you know that... The left lung is smaller than the right lung to
make room for the heart.
www.kidzworld.com Your lungs can breathe
in and out as much as
36,000 times a day with-
out you even having to
think about it.
www.kidzworld.com Terrestrial Vertebrates have Lungs Lungs are restricted to one location
in the body. Therefore, the circulatory system must transport gases between the lungs and the rest of the body. [Amphibians] – have small lungs; they rely mostly
on the diffusion of gases across
other body surfaces. [Reptiles, Birds & Mammals]
-Have larger lungs than those of the amphibians
- Contains a huge respiratory surface relative
to the animal’s body Air enters
the nostrils. From the nasal
cavity, air passes
to the pharynx where
the paths of air
and food cross. It is filtered by the
hairs and warmed, hu-midified and sampled
for odors as it flows through the spaces in the nasal cavity. Path of air in the humanbody 1 2 3 The trachea branches into two
bronchi, one leading to each lung. From the pharynx,
air goes down to the
larynx or the voice
box. 4 From the larynx, air passes through the trachea or the windpipe. 5 6 Within the lung, the bronchus
branches repeatedly into finer
and finer tubes called
bronchioles. The o2 in inhaled air dissolves
in a film of moisture in the
epithelial cells. 7 The bronchioles dead-end in millions of grapelike clusters of air sacs are called alveoli . 8 9 It then diffuses across the epithelium
and into a web of blood capillaries
that surrounds each alveolus. It then diffuses across the epithelium and into a web of blood capillaries that surrounds each alveolus. 10 The CO2 diffuses the
opposite way --- from
the capillaries, across the
epithelium of the alveolus,
into the air space of the
alveolus, and finally out
in the exhaled air. 11 1.What is the process of interchange of O2 and CO2 between an animal and its environment called? a. Digestion
D. Esophagus 2.What is the other name for the windpipe? ? What is respiration? Respiration or gas exchange is the process of interchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between living organisms and their environment.
Gas exchange makes it possible for animals to
put to work the food molecules thatthe
digestive system provides. Migrating geese can fly as high as 30, 000 feet because of their very powerful lungs. Birds' hemoglobin is
specialized with high
affinity for oxygen. Peaople living in extremely high environment like this sherpa have unusually larger lungs and heart compare to those who live in the lowland, amazing! Three Phases of Gas Exchange 1. Breathing 2. Transport of gases by the circulatory system 3. Serving of tissue cells 1. Breathing involves inhalation and exhalation of air; When an animal inhales air, O2 passes into cells which travels inside the lungs in a single file. As it exhales, CO2 passes from lung cells into the environment.  Transport of gases by the circulatory system begins with the diffusion of O2 from the lung cells into the blood vessels. The O2 attached to the hemoglobin then transports the blood from the lungs to the body’s other tissues. At the same
time, the blood also conveys CO2 from the body tissues to the lungs.  Serving of the tissue cells occurs in the body tissues.
Cells take In O2 from the blood and give out CO2 to the blood. Here are some more terms you should need to know: [Cellular Respiration]
gaining of O2 and releasing of CO2 from cells which makes it possible for the body cells to obtain energy from food molecules. [Oxygen]
it helps a cell to “burn” fuel— which releases energy from food molecules that the body has digested and absorbed. [Carbon Dioxide] (CO2)
it is the main waste
product in gas exchange [Respiratory surface]
is the part of an animal where oxygen moves in to the body and carbon dioxide diffuses out to the surrounding environment. Four types of respiratory organ 1.Outer skin- small, long, thin or flattened animals breathe through this
Ex: Earthworms and other “skin-breathers” 2.Gills- make breathing possible for aquatic animals
-extensions of the body surface specialized for gas exchange
O2 diffuses across the gill surfaces into capillaries, and CO2 diffuses in the opposite direction, out of the capillaries into the external environment.
- are generally unsuitable for an animal living on land because the wet surfaces tend to stick together and collapse when exposed to air.
- are full of tiny blood vessels covered by only one or a few layers of cells; the vessels are so narrow that red blood cells (RBC) must pass in single file
- advantage: no energy spent in keeping its respiratory surface wet
- oxygen availability in water: 3-5%; gills must be very efficient to obtain enough oxygen from water
- have four arches which have two filaments each. 3.Lungs-what terrestrial animals use to breathe
- internal sacs lined with most epithelium 4.Tracheae- insects use these for breathing
-extensive system of internal tubes
-advantage in air: more O2 and lighter and easier to move in
b. Transport of gases by circulatory system
d. Gaining O2 and giving up CO2 in the body tissues
a. O2 c. Blood
b. CO2 d. O3
a. Circulatory system
b. Digestive system
c. Respiratory system
d. Immune system c B
d. Air conditioning a. Veins
d. Tracheoles a. Ventilation
b. Cellular respiration
c. Countercurrent exchange
d. Respiration a. Ventilation
b. Cellular respiration
c. Countercurrent exchange
d. Respiration TRANSPORT OF GASES IN THE BODY Blood transports the respiratory gases,
with hemoglobin carrying the oxygen B.Functions of Hemoglobin 1.Hemoglobin (in the red blood cells) – carries CO2 in the blood hemoglobin molecule:
- With four polypeptide chains.
- Each polypeptide has a chemical group called heme with an iron atom at the center.
- Each iron atom can carry and O2 molecule.
- Thus, a hemoglobin molecule can carry four O2 molecules 2.Helps the blood transport CO2 and helps buffer the blood CO2 from the tissue cell -> diffuses into the interstitial fluid ->
then across the wall of a capillary into the blood fluid (plasma)
-Most of the CO2 enters the red bloods cells and some combine with
-The rest reacts with water molecules forming carbonic acid (H2CO3),
this is when hemoglobin acts as buffer by picking up most of the H+ ions
– preventing them from acidifying the blood. C.The human fetus exchange gases with the mother’s bloodstream
•Placenta – a composite organ that includes tissues from both the fetus and the mother -Large net of capillaries fans out
into the placenta from blood vessels in the umbilical cord of the fetus
-These capillaries exchange gases with the maternal blood that circulates in the placenta, and the maternal circulatory system carries the gases to and from the mothers lungs.
-At birth, increasing CO2 in the fetal blood stimulates the fetus’s breathing control centers to initiate breathing. A.One side of the heart – oxygen-poor blood (blue); other side – oxygen-rich blood (red)
-Oxygen-poor blood returns to the heart from capillaries in body tissues.
-Heart pumps this blood to the alveolar capillaries in the lungs.
-Gases are being exchanged between the air in the air spaces and the blood in the alveolar capillaries
-Blood leaves the alveolar capillaries, losing CO2 and gaining O2. Oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart
and the heart pumps it out to the body tissues. 3.Which of the following is NOT included in the three phases of gas exchange? 4.What is respiration’s main waste product? 5.These are featherlike extensions of the body surface, mostly in aquatic animals, specialized for gas exchange. 6.It is the medium for transporting gases
between the lungs and body cells. 7.It refers to any mechanism that increases
contact between the surrounding water or air and the respiratory surface. 8.It is the narrowest tubes in an insect’s body. 9.It is the transfer of something from a fluid moving in
one direction to another fluid moving in the opposite direction. 10.It refers to the gaining of O2 and giving up of CO2 of cells which makes it possible for the body cells to obtain energy from food molecules. [Insects]- use their tracheal system in direct exchange of air Created by:
Christele J. Amoyan Group Members
AMOYAN, Christele J.
Prof. Ivan Marcelo A Duka
Instructor, NASC 4 TutorVista.com.(2010). Respiratory Organs in Amphibians. [Youtube Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=respiration+of+amphibians&oq=respiration+of+amphibians&gs_l=youtube.3...1741.9343.0.10014.26.23.0.220.127.116.115.3785.0j9j7j1j1.18.0...0.0...1ac.1.8eEuZ6zqqQw.
TutorVista.com.(2010). Respiratory System in Insects. [Youtube Video]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HV60yTvy3Mk.
Golshanirad, M. (2007) News Opener.
[Youtube Video]. Retrieved from
Visible Body: 3D Animation and Illustration. (2008). Respiration- Ventilation 3D Medical Animation. [Youtube Video] Argosy Publishing, Inc. LLC. Retrieved from http://www.arn agosymedical.com/ Bibliography Prof. Duka This project serves as a supplementary educational material for K-12 Program As a matter of fact...