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Introduction to Forensics

This is an introduction to the field of Forensic Science. I use this in my 12th grade Forensics course but it could be used in any science class as part of a Forensics unit.

Erin Mucci

on 21 June 2018

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Transcript of Introduction to Forensics

What is Forensics?
The information they collect allows
investigators to piece together events that occurred during a crime

There is no room for bias or emotion in science!
Science in the service of law
A dictionary calls it "science in the service of law"
Application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system

Forensic Disciplines
Thank Sherlock Holmes!

Crime Lab
Welcome to the
An Introduction to Forensic Science
Unique Role of Science
Scientists supply accurate and
objective information

Psychology & Psychiatry (Profilers)
Chemistry (Toxicology)
DNA Fingerprinting
Anthropology (bones)
Art (sketches and reconstructions)
Crime Scene Investigation (CSI)
Serology (Blood)
Questioned Documents (Forgery)
Trace Evidence (hair, fibers, soil, plants)
In the beginning…
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle made the science of solving crimes popular in 1887 with A Study in Scarlet
Synonym: Criminalistics
Contributions to the field:
Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853)
Father of forensic toxicology
1814 published treatise on detection of poisons
Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914)
1879 developed anthropometry, distinguishing individuals from one another through body measurements
Francis Galton (1822-1911)
First definitive study of fingerprints

Contributions to the field:
Leone Lattes (1887-1954)
1915 developed a simple procedure to determine blood type of a dry blood stain
Calvin Goddard (1891-1955)
US Army Colonel
Established comparison microscope as a tool to compare firearms
Albert S. Osborn (1858-1946)
Developed fundamental principles of document examination
Contributions to the field:
Walter C. McCrone (1916-2002)
Pre-eminent microscopist
Teachers to 1000s of forensic scientists
Hans Gross (1847-1915)
Public prosecutor and judge in Austria
Developed principles of criminal investigation and applied scientific principles
Edmond Locard (1877-1966)
Demonstrated how the principles enunciated by Gross could be incorporated into a workable crime lab
Locard's Exchange Principle:
When a person comes in contact with
another person or object, a cross-transfer of material occurs

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
J. Edgar Hoover created a national laboratory that offers forensic services to all law enforcement agencies (1932)

Crime Labs:
Lots of variation in how they are organized:

Due to advances in techniques, scientific confirmation of evidence is called for rather than confessions or witness testimony
Full transcript