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Biochemistry & Macromolecules Key terms
Transcript of Biochemistry & Macromolecules Key terms
in an atom's nucleus. Proton Particle without a charge in
an atom's nucleus. Neutron Two or more atoms of the same
element having different
numbers of neutrons. Isotope Any of two more compounds. Isomers A wave function describing the state of a single electron in an atom (atomic orbital) or in a molecule (molecular orbital) Orbital Pure substance with unique properties;
formed when 2 or more different elements combine Compound compound whose atoms are held
together by covalent bonds. Molecule Electrical attraction between two
oppositely charged atoms
or groups of atoms. Ionic Bond Type of chemical bond formed
when atoms share electrons. Covalent Bond Weak electrostatic bond formed by the attraction of opposite charges between a hydrogen atom and an oxygen, fluorine, or nitrogen atom. Hydrogen Bond Substance that releases hydrogen
ions (H+) when dissolved in water; an
acidic has a pH less than 7. Acid Substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water; a basic solution has a
pH greater than 7. Base To indicate the relative strength of acids and bases. pH scale Mixture that can react with an acid
or a base to maintain the pH
within a specific range. Buffer Involving organisms or the
products of their life processes. Organic Having a strong affinity water. Hydrophilic Having a little or no affinity for water. Hydrophobic A molecule of low molecular weight
capable of reacting with identical. Monomer Large molecule formed from smaller
repeating units of identical, or nearly
identical, compounds linked
by covalent bonds. Polymer The process or the state of changing a substance from gas to liquid or solid. Condensation Chemical decomposition in which a compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water. Hydrolysis Organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms for each carbon atom. Carbohydrate Hydrophobic biological molecule composed
mostly of carbon and hydrogen fat, oils, and waxes are lipids. Lipid Responsible for the structure and
function of the cell membrane. Phospholipids Carbon compound joined by peptide
bonds; building block of proteins. Amino Acid Organic compound made of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; primary building block of organisms. Protein Protein that speeds up a biological reaction by lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction. Enzyme Reactant to which an enzyme birds. Substrate Join amino acids together to form proteins. Peptide Nucleotide A subunit of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Complex macromolecules that stores and communicates genetic information. Nucleic Acid Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA Ribonucleic acid; guides protein synthesis. RNA