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A New World

Chapter 1
by

Andy Bibby

on 16 January 2019

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Transcript of A New World

A New World
The First Americans
The Spanish Empire
Contact
iClicker

"He cast a long shadow on the American future"
Was Columbus the Greatest Sailor of the 15th century?
Hernan Cortes
"The first explorer to encounter a major American civilization"
1. Political authority: religious absolutism
2. Aristocratic ethos
3. Encouraged the intermixing of colonial and Indian peoples
Spanish rule: the big picture
see p. 22
4. Controversial legacy: the Black Legend
Encomienda
1. Conquistadors, not colonists
2. Encomienda
3. Las Casas
Las Casas
History of the Indies,
1528
How and when did the First Americans get to America?
The Bering Strait Theory
Tenochtitlan
Incan kingdom
Bering Strait
Problems with the Bering Strait theory?
What happened to the First Americans?
1. Finish "The Collision of Cultures"
2. HIST 180G, ANTH 180G, HIST 381G (
Pre-Columbian America
)
Finish Reading Chapter 1 !
"American Heritage, so easy a caveman can do it"
The Voyages of Zheng He
Top 5 Columbus myths
1. Columbus proved the flat earth theory wrong
2. Columbus was an Italian
3. Columbus was a great business leader
4. Columbus committed genocide
5. Columbus believed he had discovered America
"Cortes achieved what every conquistador sought: wealth beyond imagining. His success was the golden carrot that lured a legion of conquistadors after him"
"A name given by historians to describe the history of Spanish brutality in the New World."
"The Indians were totally deprived of their freedom and were put in the harshest, fiercest, most horrible captivity...Even beasts enjoy more freedom when they are allowed to graze in the fields...in [8 years on this island of Hispaniola] 90 percent had perished"
- p. 28, "Voices of Freedom"
Spanish Legacy in America:
Summary
1. Cortes inspired exploration of the "Borderlands" (American Southwest)
2. Encomienda system fostered the "Black Legend"
3. Spain's success / infamy drove other empires to challenge its predominance in the New World

Objectives
1. Hispaniola, the first settlement in the Americas
2. Hernan Cortes, the first explrer to encounter a major American civilization (and destroy it)
3. Las Casas and the spread of the Black Legend

Spain and the Reconquista
Spain and Primogeniture
It would be great if you could read "England's Colonies" for next time
Conclusions
First Americans came from different parts of the world
They were more genetically distinct than we used to think
American Indians do not all share the same genetic ancestry
"The sharp distinction between Indians and "white" people did not emerge until later in the colonial era"
85% view Columbus positively as a hero (he "discovered America")
34% percent characterize Columbus as a villain who brought slavery, disease and death to indigenous peoples.
Hero or Villain?
Legacies
established the first colony in Hispaniola
started the practice of enslaving local indians
proved that there were great riches
"Columbian exchange"
inspired other powers to set up colonies in America
"The new world is a new chance"
Francisco Pizarro
Swineherd -> conquistador
"When the new Incan emporer Atahualpa graciously welcomed Pizzaro and his men, they did what Cortest had done in the court of Montezuma. The guests from hell, the conquistadors grabbed Atahualpa and killed 7,000 Incas with no fatalities of their own...Once he was held hostage, Atahualpa promised to fill a room with gold and silver as ransom. After his Inca subjects had accomplished this, the conquistadors melted down the gold and silver and murdered Atahualpa anyway."

-History's Greatest Voyages of Exploration
Juan Ponce de León
The first large-scale attempt to establish a Spanish colony in what is now the continental United States. It failed.
(looked for the Fountain of Youth in the wrong place)
Pánfilo de Narváez
During a storm Narváez and a small group of men were carried out to sea on a raft and were not seen again.
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Cabeza de Vaca has been considered notable as a proto-anthropologist for his detailed accounts of the many tribes of American Indians that he encountered.
Hernando de Soto
Led the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (Florida, Georgia, Alabama and most likely Arkansas), and the first documented European to have crossed the Mississippi River.
Brief Summary:
Knowledge of the Americas
Clashes (cultures and religions)
Rivalry of the Americas grows
Forced labor (feudal estates or mines leads to "casual cruelties" ->
Black Legend
measles
TB
influenza
woooping cough
smallpox
rabies
Which European legal system mandates that property will go to the first born male son?
A. ultra-mogeniture
B. matrilinealism
C. primogeniture
D. patriarchy
Objectives
Questions?
"The Collision of Cultures" (p. 8-11)
When did the First Americans arrive?
How did they arrive?
Why did they come?
Who were they?
Do we have all the answers?
Pennsylvania
Virginia
Chile
The story of Meadowcroft (p. 8)
The Cactus Hill story
The Monte Verde story
The "first face" of the first American?
Kennewick Man...
Objectives
European visions of America (p. 17)
Columbus (p. 19)
Naming America (p. 20)
Critical thinking about the American Heritage: did Columbus commit genocide?
"by the end of the 15th century, four powerful nations had emerged: England, France, Portugal, and Spain" (p. 18)
Question: any others?
Portugal
coastline
Iberian peninsula:
the crusades are over (Europe no longer concentrating on the East)
Europe is not united (competition)
Columbia
How to College #1: Notes
Profile of a Conquistador
https://www.desertusa.com/desert-people/conquistador.html
"The first to chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies"
How To College #2:
Think for Yourself
http://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/national/article24608056.html
1. Defend your opinion in class
2. 3 minutes (2 minutes for Q&A)
3. Sleep-in on midterm day
Full transcript