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Transcript of Egypt Imperialism!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Economic Impacts Positive Impacts Negative Impacts Why Egypt? Independence Movement Legacy Imperialism's Impact on Religious/Ethnic Groups Early Nationalist Movements September 1881: a group of nationalist officers led by Ahmed Urabi gathered at the palace and surrounded it, demanding a constitutional govt
June 1882: riots broke out in Alexandria because the ruler was not listening to the people. In response, the British navy bombarded Alexandria, beginning the official British Occupation of Egypt Post Decolonization Success During the 1950's, after Egypt claimed independence, the Middle East was dominated by struggles such as...
War between U.S and Soviet Union
Egypt transfers their loyalty from the Soviet Union to the U.S
Suez Canal Crisis
President Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal, which had been owned by Great Britain for a long time.
Conflict between Arab states and Israel
Egypt supports Arabs
1973- Egypt and Syria attacked Israel The 1919 Revolution After WWI at Paris Peace Conference 1919, Egypt sent delegates which the British refused to recognize
This led to anger among the Egyptians and the 1919 Revolution, which was a series of uprisings Political unrest continued until February 22, 1922 when the British government declared a settlement, introducing the "Liberal Period" The Liberal Period Between 1922 and 1952, the Egyptians and the British were at peace for the most part, due to a sharing of power Egyptians were able to have a self government with a constitution, monarchy, and parliament, but the British kept four main powers:
defense of Egypt (the military)
protection of foreign interests (including the Suez Canal
control over the Sudan 1952 Due to growing tensions towards the end of the Liberal Period, in 1949, a man named Nasser formed a nationalist group called the Free Officers In January 1952 there was a fight between British troops and Egyptian police near an outpost on the Suez Canal, which sparked nationalist feelings in the Egyptians July 22-23, 1952: a military coup (take over) was staged by the Free Officers, who took over the government of Egypt, forming the Revolutionary Command Council The Revolutionary Command Council originally 9 members, in 1953 had 12
Najib was head of military, then became president
Nasser had increasing power in the RCC
Over next couple years, RCC consolidated power into its own hands, especially the military power
only people loyal to the RCC were allowed to have high ranks
Began placing restrictions on propaganda and the media
outlawed all political parties End of the RCC The president, Najib, felt like he had no power so he resigned in February 1954, sparking outrage and demand for less control over the Egyptians’ life by the RCC In October, 1954, Nasser formally took over Egypt, dissolving the RCC. Nasser would stay in power until 1970 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nasser.jpg Social Classes Post-decolonization Even though personal and cultural values changed dramatically after the Revolution for independence in 1952, the gap between the elite and the average civilians still remained large. Elite classes were neither created nor destroyed, they were altered. The Colonizers Nasser, leader in the RCC January, 1952 June, 1882 http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/egnewzz.gif Locations of nationalistic movements in imperial Egypt 1919 uprisings In 1805, Muhammad Ali took power.
Strengthened the army
Focused on cultivation of the land
Trade with Europe increased
Sent officials to Britain to be educated Muhammad Ali Ismail (1863 to 1879)
Transformed Cairo into a European City
System of Dual Control in 1877: British and French officials had authority to supervise the government
1878 Ismail agreed to a "European Cabinet" which consisted of an English finance minister and a French minister of public works
September 13, 1882 British occupied Egypt The British Take Over With the construction of the Suez Canal and the increase trading potential, the Jewish population increased in Egypt. The Jewish population decreased as their citizenship was taken away and they began to have conflicts with the Arabs.
By nationalizing the Suez Canal and their efforts in anti-imperialism, Egypt played a big role in the Arab World. https://www.eeducation.psu.edu/drupal6/files/egee120/lesson01/the-suez-canal1.gif Political Stability After Decolonization During Colonization...
Egypt's political situation declined as the British colonized. The Egyptians did not have power in their own government.
Egypt's economy was exploited by the British
Once politically free from Britain, Egypt saw growth in their industries and economy because it was developed into a trading spot.
1953- Egypt declared as a republic
After Nasser became President, Egypt became more politically stable.
1956-Nasser nationalized The Suez Canal Company, which collected incomes from passing fees. This became a financial source for Egypt.
Increasing trade with communist countries
Growth of state investments doubled from 1952 to 1956
1961- Nasser developed a relationship with Britain and America for diplomatic ties.
Allied with the Soviet Union both politically and militarily. fart GDP increased from 14% in the 1940s to 35% in the 1970s
Life Expectancy was at 44.
Mortality rate was 353/1000
Low literacy rates http://post.nyssa.org/.a/6a0120a8cdef2c970b013480a481a9970c-pi Egypt lost their claim for Sudan and the British were still present in Egypt for a couple years after their revolution for freedom. This led to domestic unrest. Egypt and Great Britain Today The Vailed Protectorate In the past few years, Egypt has been on the news due to their politics and instability. The Egyptians recently overthrew their president, Hosni Mubarak. He ruled like a dictator, instead of a president, which led to a rebellion, with the support of the Egyptian military. As a country, Egypt is not as modernized and advance as Great Britain. The British government is much more stable than it is in Egypt. Direct Rule: Britain's aim was to stay in Egypt only until the finances were in order, but stayed 74 years. What Britain called their temporary occupation in Egypt Lord Cromer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evelyn_Baring,_1st_Earl_of_Cromer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali_of_Egypt * see underneath images for citing Egyptians still could hold higher occupations
in government, but in 1905 42% were held by British and only 28% were held by Egyptians while the rest were held by Syrians and Armenians Egypt was governed by Lord Cromer from 1883-1907 Cleared up Egypt's finances, promoted railways & canal construction, reformed agricultural practice.
He also abolished the whipping of fellahin (Egyptian peasants) and corvée labor (feudalism or unpaid, forced labor) But in addition he epitomized "Orientalist" superiority, thinking that "British paternalism" was Egypt's best option. Ismail and His European Cities Until the end of his reign in 1863, Ismail transformed Cairo and Alexandria into European cities complete with gas-lit boulevards, parks, public buildings, trams and railways. He also built an Opera House (replicated after the Tuileries for the French Empress Eugérie) that was to play Aida, an opera. Ismail resisted European-imposed changes (System of Dual Power) but was forcefully replaced by his son by the Ottoman
Colonel Ahmad Urabi & supporters formed nationalist movement with slogan "Egypt for the Egyptians", but after being defeated he was exiled to Ceylon
1906 Dinshway incident: British officers killed local woman by accident on a hunting trip. Locals wounded one and mortally wounded the other. 52 villagers were tried and 4 were hanged. This incident lead to Lord Cromer's resignation.
Shortly after World War I, Britain claimed Egypt its protectorate. •Location, location, location: accessible from England by Mediterranean Sea
•With construction of the Suez Canal (connects Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean) in 1869, easy access to Asia by sea.
•British saw a huge market in the natural resource of cotton – the eventual staple of British Egypt’s economy
•Other resources included wheat, rice, fruits, and vegetables
•Potential agricultural market due to the easy irrigation allowed by the Nile River
•Other Draws: weak economy and government thus easy target of Imperialism Economic Collaboration British control was a big benefit to wealthy landowners in Egypt. They were able to expand cotton cultivation and increase exports. By 1900, cotton exports were 80% of the value of Egypt's exports. 90% of funds for Egypt's large scale business firms came from overseas, and economic interests from other countries played a big part in banking, insurance, and trading firms. * * * •Infrastructure greatly improved: dams, railroads, and roads built
•Being under Imperial rule temporarily helped Egypt out of debt: Egypt’s economy was in recession, boosted after British rule
•Increased diversity: increased number of Christians, English begins to be taught in schools, new European bourgeoisie in Egypt from England, Belgium, and France
•Basis of Egyptian nationalism: near the end of the rule early nationalists in the 1920s to 40s looked to promote Egyptian businesses to diversify the economy through industrialization (based too much on the foreign owned cotton industry)
•Mysteriousness of Egypt embraced by British citizens: tourist destination •Little investment in public education by British. Education and literacy rates remained poor
•After British rule, Egypt did not industrialize but instead stayed mainly agricultural
•Wide spread poverty and gap between rich and poor increases which is the basis of an economic crisis years later
•Increased number of Christians cause of later conflict with Muslims
•White citizens at first had special legal and economic privileges
•Still a lack of western understanding of Egyptian culture and religion * * * Egypt was mainly governed by general- consul Lord Cromer http://www.egyptianflag.org/picture/Egyptian_flag.gif http://images3.wikia.nocookie.net/__cb20101202211618/potcoplayers/images/e/ea/Flag_great_britain_flag.png High Aswan Dam on Banks of Nile River By Nellie Rogers Ari Seckler Sonia Khurana