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World History I - Rise of Islam

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by

Mark Fiorill

on 21 October 2015

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Transcript of World History I - Rise of Islam

iii. arabesques - repeating geometric patterns usually on ceremic tiles used as decoration
iv. bazaars - covered markets
ii. mosques - Islamic house of worship
i. minarets - tall, slender towers rising from near mosques
some women secluded
men eventually become dominant
Mongols invade and destroy/conquer
ii. Sunni - Muslims who accept Ummayad rule; leadership chosen from most worthy
i. Shi'ite - Muslims who accept descendants of Ali as true ruler; leadership chosen from family
Internal struggle between relatives of Ali and Ummayad leaders
Growth of empire
D. Ummayad Caliphate
B. Jihad - "struggle in the way of Allah"
Abu Bakr and Ali
A. Caliph - successor to Muhammad
Death of Muhammad
5. Hajj - pilgrimage to Mecca
4. Fasting - during the month of Ramadan between sunrise and sunset
3. Charity - giving to those in need
2. Prayer - ritual meditation, five times per day
1. Faith - belief in monotheism
D. Five Pillars of Islam
E. Shariah - code of Islamic law that regulates daily life

-based on translation of Quran

- varies widely
622 = 1
C. Hijrah - "breaking off of relations"
ii. Medinah = city of the prophet
ii. Islam - peace through submission to the will of Allah
i. Quran - holy book
of Islam
Trips to the hills to meditate
Kadijah - wife, first convert, business owner
Social inequality
PART II. A Prophet
C. Mecca (Makkah)
ii. polytheism - belief system, more than one god
ii. Caravan trade - group traveling together (w/ carrier animals) trading goods
i. nomads - communities of people who consistently move from one place to another
Arabian Peninsula
A. Civilization - most advanced stage of human development and organization
World History I, Mr. Fiorill
Rise of Islam
So what civilization are we going to talk about?
Islamic civilization which started on a peninsula
B. So who lived there prior to Islam?
So how did a bunch of nomads become so powerful?
Area (Geography)
PART I. Civilization
PREDICTION QUESTION: Reading the map above, list reasons that the Arabian Peninsula may have been a good place for trade.
"winter and summer are equally intolerable. No waters flow... and not a blade of grass on which to rest the eye; no nor hunting. Here there are only merchants, the most despicable of professions."
housed the ka'aba
A. Muhammad - born around 570
trader, moderate success
many convert
converts = Muslims or "those who submit"
iv. seek to convert people
iii. large area
ii. message is diffused
i. appeal to people everywhere
B. Universalizing religion
PREDICTION QUESTION: The ruling class (very wealthy) feel threatened by Muhammad and Islam. Why do you think they may have felt that way?
i. journey of Muhammad to Medinah
PART III. Caliphates
defense, expansion in face of threat
C. Caliphate - Islamic state ruled by a caliph
iv. looked to control trade routes
iii. non-Arab speakers could not hold political office
ii. introduce hereditary monarchy
i. capital at Damascus
first dynasty
iv. looked to control trade routes
Abbasids - overthrew the Ummayad
iii. embraced education
ii. allowed non-Arab speakers to hold political office
i. capital at Baghdad
ANALYSIS QUESTION: Both the Ummayad and Abbasid created an empire and both struggled to keep control and maintain control. Creating an empire or maintaining an empire, which do you think is more difficult? Why?
v. spread, consolidated trade routes
vi. spread language
vii. spread sharia
viii. encouraged migration
ix. rapid urbanization
vii. continuation of urbanization
vi. spread religion, language to united empire
v. expanded trade routes
i. kaaba - building that housed deities before Islam
E. SPLIT!
viii. use of sharia
B. Architecture
iv. Intense borrowing and diffusion of written works helped to unify worlds
iii. direct influence on later European "renaissance", scientific revolution and "enlightenment" eras
ii. translation of Greek philosophers revived powerful ideas about religion, government, science
i. Arabic language surpassed Greek as the preferred language
Part IV. CULTURE
A. Writing & Education
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