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Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory

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Kelsey Neumann

on 18 February 2014

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Transcript of Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory

Current Perspectives on Piaget's Theory
By
Tracy Espinola
Kelsey Neumann
Ali Schreiber

Schemas
The Webster's Dictionary definition of a schema is a representation of a plan or theory in the form of an outline or model.
Piaget believed schemas to be the building block of intelligent behavior and called them "units" of knowledge.
These mental representations can be applied when needed to respond or understand a situation
Piaget believed that as a child got older, his or her schemas became more numerous and developed
He also believed that newborn babies already have schemas of their own natural schemas.
They are cognitive structures with natural reflexes, which are genetically programmed to us as infants.
Demo: Lego head
Piaget suggested that exploration of the physical environment should be largely child-initiated and child-directed in effort.
young children learn from their informal interactions with their environment (i.e.; play with sand, water, paints etc.)
opportunities to manipulate physical objects enhance students’ understanding for both elementary and secondary school grades
Researchers are finding that hands-on experiences are more effective when combined with instruction
Example: Use of cubes in math class

Breakdown Of Developmental Stages
Sensorimotor (Birth -2yrs):
Infants learn about different objects and how those objects can manipulated.
Object Permanence is the main factor of this stage. Infants are learning how to look for an object that is hidden
Pre-Operational (2-7yrs)
In this stage students are very ego centric in their thought process.
Their animism thought process also starts in this stage.
Concrete Operational (7-11yrs)
Students thoughts start to become more mature. They are starting to have more logical ideas.
Their egocentric and animism way of thinking starts to fade.
Formal Operational (11- adult)
Students start to have an adult like thought process.
They think in a more logical, organized, and abstract way.
Theory of Cognitive Development
The foundation of his theory is simple. Children are born with an extremely basic mental structure.
These structures are genetically inherited.
Over time, there are several stages of development.
These stages show how children's thinking transitions from infancy to adulthood.
His theory differs from other theories because it is strictly concerned with children, only focuses on development, and it suggests that separate stages of development;
Which are distinguished by qualitative differences instead of gradual increase in number and complex behaviors and ideas.
The objective of he theory is to explain the system and processes by which the infant , and the child, develops into an individual who can reason and think using hypotheses.
Jean Piaget 1896-1980
Piaget was the first psychologist of his kind to create a systematic study of cognitive child development.
He was responsible of cognitive child development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple tests that revealed different cognitive abilities.
The stigma was that children were less competent in their thinking than adults
http://www.psychometricinstitute.com.au/Psychometric-Test-Guide/Abstract-Reasoning-Test-Guide.html
Strenghts:
-changed the perspectives of how child development was thought about and methodology of studying children
-His work increased our understanding of cognitive development. Our understandings can be applied directly to the current educational system.
Weaknesses:
Are the stages real?
Some studies have shown that progress to the formal operational stage is not guaranteed.
Piaget failed to consider the effect that the social setting and culture may have on cognitive development
His methods are more open to biased interpretation than other methods.
He underestimated the abilities of children because his tests were sometimes confusing or difficult to understan
Behaviorist would refute Piaget's schema theory because it cannot be directly observed as it is an internal process.
Current Perspectives
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive development has been extremely influential in its applications to the current educational policies and teachings. We’ll examine three ideas when translation Piaget’s ideas into classroom practice;
Piaget’s Clinical Method
Piaget’s Emphasis on the importance of hands-on experiences
Piaget’s concept of disequilibrium


Stages of Development
Strengths and Weaknesses
Assimilation and Accommodation
Piaget believed intellectual growth to be the result of adaptation. Adaptation happens through assimilation and accommodation.
Assimilation utilizes an existing schema to deal with new object or situation.
Accommodation occurs when the existing shcema fails and needs to be modified or changed to deal with a new object or situation.
Equilibration is the force that moves development. Piaget thought that this development happened in leaps and bounds, and not at a constant steady rate.
Equilibrium occurs when a child's schema is able to deal with anew information through assimilation. When new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas, it creates a lack of stability.
Equilibration is the force that drives the learning process and it seeks to restore balance by completing the new task (accommodation).
The inspiration web above illustrates Piaget's four cognitive development stage. By Tiffany Davis, Meghan Hummel, and Kay Sauers (2006)
Class Test
Hands-on Experiences: Current Perspectives
Piaget's Clinical Method:Current Perspectives:
Neo Piagetian theories echo Piaget's belief that cognitive development depends on brain maturation.
working memory is especially important for cognitive development
enables people to temporarily hold and think about a small amount of new information
Children's working memory increases with age in capacity and ability to think about several things simultaneously
By involving concrete or formal operational thinking skills and asking students to explain what they are thinking we can gain insights into their logical reasoning abilities.
Example of Road Maps.
Creating Disequilibrium- The Value of Sociocognitive Conflict: Current Perspective.
Sociocognitive Conflict- A situation in which one encounters and has to wrestle with the ideas and viewpoints inconsistent with one's own (Ormrod,36)
Interaction with peers help children to understand that there are other people who view the world differently than them and that their own ideas are not always logical or accurate
It may ultimately cause the child to reevaluate or revise their understandings
Piaget believed that Children's interaction with peers was important, but even more significant when they interacted with adults. He believed this because he thought it was important for children's cognitive development
Sources:
1) "Discovery Learning- Educational Learning Theories."
Discovery Learning- Educational Learning Theories.
N.p., n.d. Web 10 Feb. 2014 https://sites.google.com/a/nau.edu/educationallearningtheories/discovery-learning.
2) Ormrod, J.E. (2014).
Educational psychology: developing learners
(Eighth ed.). Upper Saddle New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
3) "Stages of Development." Stages of Development. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014. http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/DLiT/2000/Piaget/stages.htm
4) "Piaget's Stages." -Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology, N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. http://epltt. coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Piaget's_Stages
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