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Transcript of Music Appreciation
melismatic - many notes sung to a single text syllable.
monophonic - melody without accompaniment.
neumatic - 2-4 notes notes set to each syllable.
neumes - early musical notation signs; square notes on a 4-line staff
organum - earliest form of polyphony, multi-voiced parts sung in fixed rhythmic patterns.
polyphony - 2 or more independent melodies woven together.
Introducing the Middle Ages
Life in the dark ages had been about survival, not thriving. The Middle ages brings about changes that allow people to start living life to a fuller extent. Monasteries gave us the Gregorian Chant which led to the development of polyphony and organum. Although most of the chants were anomyous, Hildegard, a nun in the late 12th century, wrote hers down and they are preserved for us today.
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance Age
The Renaissance was a time of rebirth and it was also known as the Age of Enlightenment. Not only did this time period give us some of the world's most famous artist like da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael, but it totally changed the course of church history with Martin Luther's 95 Theses. The Council of Trent set
as the standard for sacred music, but secular music saw the emergence of madrigals and instrumental dance music.
The Baroque Age
The Classical Age
The Romantic Age
20th Century Music
Music Vocabulary of the Renaissance Age
a capella - music performed with out instrument accompaniment.
madrigal - secular genre set to a short, lyric love poem, with or without instruments
Mass - a sacred genre of music
motet - started as a secular genre but switched over to a sacred music genre
sacred music - religious or spiritual music
secular music - nonreligious music, usually in everyday vernacular
word painting - a musical illustration of words from the text
John Farmer of England (secular)
Palestrina of Italy (sacred)
des Prez of France (sacred)
Dance music comes on the scene
Music starts moving toward tonality
More instruments are being developed
Music is now being played in the home instead of just church and court
Musicians of the Renaissance
Secular Vocabulary of the Baroque Age
concerto - an instrument singled out with an orchestra background
doctrine of the affections - similar to word painting that is the combination of text and music
opera - music drama that has acting, scenery and costumes
suite - multi-movement piece made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, usually all in the same key. This is an instrumental piece only with the orchestra playing at the same time.
Sacred Vocabulary of the Baroque Age
cantata - a lyric drama that is set to music but does not have any acting
choral - hymn like piece in strophic form
mass - a sacred genre of music that uses call and response
oratoria - large-scale dramatic genre that is based on the text of religious character. It is similar to opera but without scenery, costumes or actions.
Johann Sebestian Bach
George Frideric Handel
1678 - 1741
Friedrich Nietzsche: 'Without music, life would be a mistake.'
“If I were not a physicist, I would probably be a musician. I often think in music. I live my daydreams in music. I see my life in terms of music.”
― Albert Einstein
“Music touches us emotionally, where words alone can't.”
― Johnny Depp
“Where words fail, music speaks.”
― Hans Christian Andersen
“If one should desire to know whether a kingdom is well governed, if its morals are good or bad, the quality of its music will furnish the answer.”
“Music is what tells us that the human race is greater than we realize.”
― Napoleon Bonaparte
“Music produces a kind of pleasure which human nature cannot do without.”
“I would say that music is the easiest means in which to express, but since words are my talent, I must try to express clumsily in words what the pure music would have done better.”
― William Faulkner
“Music is the shorthand of emotion.”
― Leo Tolstoy
Baroque literally translates to "misshaped pearl" and the new overly
exaggerated sounds of the music. This bizzare and elaborate ornamentation in music allowed the composer to write pieces specifically for one instrument over another. Travel was easier and therefore musicians could hear first hand what other sounds other artists were producing. With the rise of the middle class, there were more opportunities to have instruments made from specialized craftsmen and music was being played in the home.
J. S. Bach
Opera is introduced
Dances were formalized into suites
Sacred choral music was still king
Oratorios are invented
Instrumental concerto was a staple
Born to a line of famous musicians
Considered an organist
First job was playing the organ in church
Stayed true to the church
Had 19 children
4 of his sons became professional musicians
Pachelbel's Cannon in D
(because it is my favorite)
All about classical
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Ludwig van Beethoven
All about the Romantics
F. F. Chopin
Cello Suite #1
Tocata and Fugue in D Minor
Water music alla Hornpipe
Born in Germany to wealthy parents
Loved the Italian opera and wanted to bring it to London
Was the pop star of his day
Made a boatload of money on his opera "Rinaldo"
His other operas were not as well recieved
After a vision, he locked himself in a room and wrote an oratorio entitled "The Messiah" in just 24 days.
Didn't make any revisions to "The Messiah"
Born in Italy
Became an ordained priest, but after a year decided he wanted to pursue music
Became a violin teacher at one of the orphanage's in Venice.
Wrote over 500 concertos, 40 cantatas, 22 operas and 60 sacred works.
is one of his more popular concertos
Complete Cello Concerto
Classical music derives its name because it has the same qualities of the architectural and artistic discoveries of the classical Greco-Roman cultureThe Classical Age was all about making music for music's sake, or absolute music. This was the opposite of word painting tha was popular during the Romantic Age. The middle class was demanding more music and musicians could actually make a living on their own, instead of being under a tuteledge. The first group of composers came out of the "Viennese School" and symphonies increased greatly in size. When comparing music of the classical age to that of the barroque age, you will notice that the classical pieces are simpler and homophonic with clear phrases and cadences.
absolute music: music for the sake of music
Chamber music: 2-10 performers, each one with one part
Concerto: Insrumental genre in several movements for solo instruments with orchestral accompanyment
Orchestra: large group of musicians which started with 24-30 people. Beethoven increased the size to 100 musicians that played in a concert hall
Sonata: Instrumental genre in several movements for a soloist or small ensemble
String Quartet: consists of 2 violins, 1 viola and 1 cello
Symphony: large work for orchestra, generally in three or four movements.
Viennese School: Name given to the three prominent composers that lived in Vienna (Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Ludwig van Beethoven
Benjamin Franklin discovers electricity (1752)
American Revolution begins (1775)
French Revolution begins (1789)
Vaccine for smallpox discovered (1796)
Coronation of Napoleon (1804)
Napoleon defeated at Waterloo (1815)
Son of a well-known violinist
Composed his first piece at age 4 and his first symphony at age 8
had an incredible ability to remember music
Composed his first 30 symphonies by age 18
In all, he composed over 600 pieces which include 41 symphonies, 27 piano concertos, 5 violin concertos, 27 concert arias, 23 string quartets, 18 masses, and 22 operas.
A few of his most famous works are The Magic Flute, Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, Le Nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni
Was one of the famous Vienna Choir boys
Wrote the Elfking when he was still a teenager
He wrote over 600 songs, including operas and symphonies
Studied under Salieri
Died at the age of 31 and was buried next to Beethoven
Schubert •Berloiz •Tchaikosky •Lizst
Mendelssohn •Brahams •Wagner •Verdi • Chopin •Schumann
The Louisana Purchase (1803)
Deafeat of Napoleon (1815)
Tuba first used in major work (1830)
American Civil War (1861)
Victor Hugo wrote Les Miserables (1862)
Played the violin as a young boy
By age 22, he was playing in the salons of the Viennese nobles
Started to go deaf in his mid-twenties
He wrote nine symphonies, 32 piano sonatas, one opera, five piano concertos, and many chamber works including some ground-breaking string quartets
A few of his famous pieces are Fur Elise, Ode to Joy, Moonlight Sonata, and Symphony No. 5
He is known as the father of the symphony
He became wealthy from composing, unlike Mozart
He taught Beethoven for a short while
He wrote 106 symphonies
Romantic composers rebelled against the classic era composers. It was all about the intense emotions or moods that people felt being expressed in music. We see softer softs and louder louds and the melodies are longer and stronger. The musicians were writing for themselves, not the church or to entertain the audience. Most music historians credit Beethoven with the transition from the Classical to the Romantic time period.
•Program Music: intrumental music rich with literary or pictorial associations.
•Lied(lieder): German for "song"
•Song Cycle: a group of songs or lieder that are unified either musically or through their texts.
•Started composing at the age of 7
•Played piano for the Czar of Russia at the age of 15 and was given a diamond ring for his performance
•Most of his music was written for the piano
•Wrote the Etudes as an exercise to help himself learn how to play the new style of Romantic music.
•Considered one of the greatest composers of the 19th century
•Started playing piano at the age of 7
•Began composing at age 11, but because he didn't think they were good enough, he destroyed his early work
• A great opera composer who changed how opera was written and performed
•Queen Victoria's daughter chose the Bridal Chorus for her wedding and it is still used for wedding today.
•Hitler liked his music, so it became the music of Nazi Germany
•Started taking piano lessons at age 5
•Has some of the most famous ballets in the world
•His Symphony No. 6 was heard just 9 days before he died
•One of the last well-known romantic era composers
•Much of his music has the sound of Russian bells
•Left Russia during the Revolution (1917) and escaped to America
Mrs. Simyon's tip of the day: If you are going to an opera, read the program ahead of time so you know what is going on!
Opera covers more than 1 musical era, and there is more than 1 style of opera. It was first seen in the late Renaissance/early Baroque time and is a large-scale music drama that combines poetry, acting, scenery and costumes with singing and instrumental music.
•Aria: lyric song for solo voice with
•Recitative: the plot and action of the opera
•Libretto: the text or script of the opera
•Librettist: the writer of the text
•Overture: instrumental introductory movement
•Opera Seria: a serious opera
•Florentine Camerata: Group of musical amateurs who met to discuss combining the arts which led to the formation of opera
•Opera Buffa: the fun opera
•Opera: a musical drama that is generally sung throughout, combining the resources
of vocal and instrumental with poetry.
Late Renaissance/Early Baroque
•Operas from this time period were normally written in Latin and Greek and mythology was the subject matter
Opera's written during this time were written in the "people's language" which was German and the subject matter became lively, down-to-earth stories instead of Greek and Roman Myths. Opera Buffa, or the comic opera was developed.
Zadok the Priest
Mozart's The Magic Flute
Glucks' Orfeo & Euridice
Bel Canto (Beautiful Singing)
This style of opera was popular from the late 1700's to 1850's. It had more elaborate costumes, large & detailed scenery and special effects were extremely popular
Rossini: La Cenerentola
Bellini: I PURITANI
Opera on a Grand Scale
•Known for it's large casts, stunning sets, beautiful costumes and high drama. It was -popular in the mid-to-late 1800's.
Wagner's The Ring
How could I put a slide in about Opera and not include Puccini?
•Was a French movement that tried to capture a dreamy mood
•It wanted to suggest rather than rely on strong, traditional forms
•It was music of mystery, magic and wonder
DeBussy: Claire de Lune
Ravel: Daphnis et Chloe
Expressionism was a music style popular in Germany and Austria. The Second School of Viennese gave us composers like Schonber, Webern and Berg. It used a 12-step technique that used all twelve notes of the chromatic scale. It was also very atonal which means it moves from one area of dissonance to another without a place of relaxation.
Schonberg: Pierrot lunaire
•a belief in the value of what is simple or unsophisticated
•going all the way back to primeval sounds
Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring
•This movement sought to revive balance and objectivity in the arts by returning to the formal structures of the past.
•Classical music with a modern twist
Orff: Carmina Burana
Ralph Vaughan Williams: