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AS PE Nutrition and Weight Management

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Mike Tyler

on 9 June 2016

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Transcript of AS PE Nutrition and Weight Management

Nutrition and Weight Management
Balanced Diet
Eat Well Plate
The Eatwell plate is ...
To Recap
Dietary requirements for exercise
Diet can be seen as an ergogenic aid for elite level athletes/performers
The Basics of Nutrition
Major nutrient groups / food groups
Carbohydrate
Simple Carbs = Sugar
Fat
1 gram of Fat gives 9cal of energy
Minerals
These are inorganic nutrients which must be ingested. They are found naturally in rocks, soil and metal ores. We get them from eating plants
Water
Water is essential for all life.
Water is lost through excretion, sweating and water vapour.
Rehydration is therefore necessary
Protein
1 gram of protein gives 4cal of energy
Vitamins
Organic compounds that are essential for normal growth and functioning. Required in small quantities.
Energy Intake
Energy
Density
Foods with a low energy density (ED) fill you up more, for the same amount of calories. Low ED foods include:

Vegetables
asparagus, cucumber, green beans, spinach, lettuce, sweet bell peppers, radishes, onions, broccoli, cauliflower, mushrooms

Fruit
peaches, nectarines, kiwi fruit, melon and berries
Think:

What might be the side effects of a very high fat diet?

What might be the side effects of a very high sugar diet?
1 gram of Carbohydrate gives 4cal of energy
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
Complex Carbs = Starch
e.g. glucose
e.g. fructose
e.g. sucrose
e.g. lactose
All Carbohydrate must be broken down into glucose for use in muscle contraction.

Which type of carbohydrate above would provide this energy fastest?
Fat is stored as triglycerides
Once fat is digested the body breaks it down into glycerol and free fatty acids (FFAs)
Each fatty acid is made up of chains of carbon and hydrogen. The SHAPE of the fatty acid determines its usefulness.
The three types of FFA are
saturated
mono-unsaturated
poly-unsaturated.
20
the number of
needed to sustain growth and functioning
8
the number of amino acids your body cannot synthesise and must therefore be part of your diet. These are known as
AMINO ACIDS
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
provided these 8 are present, the body can synthesise the other 12
Cannot be stored, so must be ingested daily (can be converted to fat / carb for storage)
Can be used as secondary energy source if fat and carb stores are very low
PROTEIN
Most vitamins cannot be synthesised within the body (except D and K) so they need to be supplied by the diet
the healthy eating model in the UK

5 food groups:
fruit and veg
bread, rice, potatoes & pasta
milk and dairy
meat, fish, eggs and beans
foods and drinks high in sugar/fat
Lacking the right vitamins can contribute to disease
for rapid cell division and growth, eg during infancy and pregnancy (aka Folic Acid)

helps to make red blood cells, and is important for nerve cell function

Vitamin E is an antioxidant and helps protect cells from damage. It is also important for the health of red blood cells.
Other key vitamins include...
Vit D = Rickets
Vit A = Blindness
Vit C = Scurvy
My Nan used to say that carrots help you see
Have a look at the vitamins chart
Vit B9
Vit B12
Vit E
Macrominerals
Trace Elements
more than 100mg per day
less than 100mg per day
calcium
phosphorus
magnesium
sulphur
sodium
potassium
chloride
iron
zinc
iodine
selenium
copper
manganese
fluoride
chromium
molybdenum
Acceptable average levels for adults

Protein: 10-35%
Fat: 20-35%
Carbohydrate: 45-65%
These three are called the principle electrolytes and are responsible for maintaining fluid balances in the body, as well as allowing electrical impulses to travel from the CNS to the muscles for contraction.
Fat
Current EFSA (European food Safety Authority) guidelines recommend total water intakes of 2.0 L/day for adult females and 2.5 L/day for adult males
It is possible to drink too much water, but this is uncommon.
Too much water flushes out the electrolytes (salts) in the body and can lead to severe cramps (this is called hyponatremia)
Drinking too little water carries many health risks
Elite athletes must carefully monitor their water intake to avoid dehydration.

More on this later...
Feeling thirsty and lightheaded
Having dark coloured, strong-smelling urine
Passing urine less often than usual
Early warning signs:
Late symptoms include:

Feeling tired (lethargic) or confused
Dry mouth and eyes that don't produce tears
Not passing urine for eight hours
Dry skin that sags slowly into position when pinched up
Rapid heartbeat
Blood in your stools (faeces) or vomit
Low blood pressure (hypotension)
Compile a list of dietary guidelines for athletes for an endurance-based sport.

Describe necessary intakes of each macro- and types of micro-nutrient, as well as water.

Explain why each of these is important.

Don't forget to account for total amount of energy required for physical activity.
DEHYDRATION
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