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Heidi Tarman

on 4 January 2015

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Why study skin structure, growth and nutrition?

Anatomy of the skin

Nutrition and maintaining skin health
Describe the structure and compositon of the skin.
List the functions of the skin.
List the classes of nutrients essentioal for good health.
List the food groups and dietary guidelines recommended by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA).
List and describe the vitamins that can help the skin.
Why Study Skin Structure, Growth and Nutrition
Knowing the skin's underlying structure and basic needs is crucial in order to provide excellent skin care for clients.
You will need to recognize adverse conditions, including skin diseases, inflamed skin and infectious skin disorders so that you can refer clients to medical professionals for treatment when necessary.
21st Century skin care has entered the realm of high technology so you must learn about and understand the latest developments in ingredients and state-of-the-art delivery systems in order to help protect, nourish and preserve the health and beauty of your clients' skin.
Anatomy of the Skin
medical branch of science that deals with the study of skin
-- it's nature, structure, functions diseases and treatment --
is called
is a physician who specializes in diseases and disorders of the skin, hair and nails
four years of college, four years of medical school and about four years of specialty training in dermatology.
Also, dermatologists may have training in internal medicine because some skin symptoms can be a sign of internal disease.
Cosmetologists may be allowed to clean skin, preserve the health of skin and beautify the skin, depending on the laws and regulations of their state. Some states require cosmetologists become an esthetician in order to perform services on the skin. An
specializes in the cleansing,beautification and preservation of the health of skin on the entire body, including the face and neck. Cosmetologists are not allowed to diagnose, prescribe or provide any type of treatment for abnormal conditions, illnesses or diseases.
Cosmetologists refer clients with medical issues to dermatologists more than any other type of physician.
is the largest organ of the body.
the skin of an average adult
were stretched out, it would cover over 3,000 sq.inches and
about 6-9 lbs.
Our skin protects the network of muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels and everything else inside our bodies. It is the only natural barrier between our bodies and the environment.
Healthy skin should be free of any visible signs of disease,infection or injury. It is slightly moist, soft and flexible. Ideally, healthy skin has a smooth, fine-grained texture (feel and appearance).
The surface of healthy skin is slightly

and its immune responses react quickly to organisms that touch or try to enter it.

Appendages of the skin
include hair, nails, sudoriferous (sweat) glands and sebaceous (oil) glands.
Continued, repeated pressue on any part of the skin, especially the hands and feet, can cause it to thicken and develop into a
which is an important and needed protective layer that prevents damage to the underlying skin.
Did you know?

Complete removal of a callus is a medical procedure that should
be performed in the salon.
The skin of the scalp is constructed similarly to the skin elsewhere on the human body, but
has larger and deeper hair follicles
to accommodate the longer hair of the head.
The skin is composed of two main divisions: the epidermis and the dermis.
is the outermost and thinnest layer of the skin.
It contains no blood vessels, but has many small nerve endings. The epidermis is made up of 5 layers.
Stratum corneum
, aka
horny layer
is the layer we see when we look at the skin and is the layer cared for by salon products and services.
Its scale-like cells are continually being shed and replaced by cells coming to the surface from underneath.
These cells are made up of
, a fibrous protein that is also the principal component of hair and nails.
The cells combine with lipids (fats) produced by the skin to help make the stratum corneum a protective, water resistant layer.
Stratum lucidum
is the clear, transparent layer under the stratum corneum
; it consist of small cells through which light can pass.
Stratum granulosum
, also known as
granular layer
, is the layer of the epidermis that is composed of cells that look like granules and are filled with keratin. The cells die as they are pushed to the surface to replace dead cells tht are shed from the stratum corneum.,
Stratum spinosum
, is the spiny layer just above the stratum germinativium. The spiny layer is where the process of skin cell shedding begins.
Stratum germinativum
, also known as
basal cell layer
, is the deepest layer of the epidermis. This is the live layer of the epidermis that produces new epidermal skin cells andd is responsible for the growth of the epidermis.
It is composed of several layers of differently shaped cells and also contains special cells called
, which produce the dark skin pigment called melanin.
Melanin protects the sensitive cells in the dermis from the destructive effects of excessive ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun or from UV lamps.
Did you know?
The skin located under our eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin on the body. The skin on the palms of our hands and soles of our feet is the thickest skin.
also known as

derma, corium, cutis or true skin
is the underlying or inner layer of the skin.

The dermis extends to form the subcutaneous tissue.
The highly sensitive dermis layer of connective tissue is about
times thicker than the epidermis.
Within its structure, there are numerous blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, sebaceous (oil) glands and hair follicles, as well as arrector pili muscles.

Arrector pili muscles
are the small, involuntary muscles in the base of the hair that cause goose flesh--or goose bumps
The dermis is comprised of
two layers
; the papillary (superficial layer) and the reticular (deepest layer).
papillary layer

is the outer layer of the dermis, directly beneath the epidermis.
Here you will find the
dermal papillae, which are small, cone shaped elevations at the base of the hair follicles.
Some papillae contain looped capillaries, others contain small epidermal structures called tactile corpuscles, with
nerve endings that are sensitive to touch and pressure.
This layer also contains melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells.
The top of the papillary layer where it joins the epidermis is called the
epidermal-dermal junction


reticular layer
is the deepest layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with all of its oxygen and nutrients.
It contains the following structures within its network:
fat cells
sudoriferous (sweat) glands
blood vessels
hair follicles
lymph vessels
Arrector pil muscles
sebaceous (oil) glands
nerve endings
Subcutaneous tissue
, also known as
adipose tissue
subcutis tissue
, is the fatty tissue found below the dermis
. It gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fats for use as energy and also acts as a protective cushion for the skin. Thickness varies according to age, gender and general health of the individual.
How the Skin is Nourished
Blood supplies nutrients and oxygen to the skin. Nutrients are molecules from food, such as protein, carbohydrates and fats. These nutrients are necessary for cell life, repair and growth. The skin cannot be nourished properly from the ouside in with cosmetic products; it must have nourishment from foods that we eat.

Lymph, the clear fluids of the body taht bathe the skin cells, remove toxins and cellular waste, and have immune functions that help protect the skin and body against disease. Neworks of arteries and lymph vessels in the subcutaneous tissue send their smaller branches to hair papillae, hair follicles and skin glands.
Nerves of the Skin
The skin contains the surface endings of the following nerve fibers:

Motor nerve fibers

are distributed to the arrector pili muscles attached to the hair follicles.
Motor nerves carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.
Sensory nerve fibers

react to heat, cold, touch, pressure and pain.
These sensory receptors send messages to the brain.
Secretory nerve fibers
are distributed to the sudoriferous (sweat) and sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin. They regulate the excretion of perspiration from the sudoriferous glands and control the flow of sebum to the surface of the skin.
Sense of Touch
papillary layer
of the dermis houses the nerve endings thatt provide the body with the sense of touch, pain, heat, cold and pressure.
Nerve endings are most abundant in the fingertips. Complex sensations, such asvibrations, seem to depend on the sensitivity of a combination of these nerve endings.
Skin Color
The color of the skin--whether fair,medium or dark--depends primarily on
, the tiny grains of pigment (coloring matter) that are produced by melanocytes and then deposited into cells in the stratum geminativum layer of the epidermis and the papillary layers of the dermis.
The color of the skin is a hereditary trait and varies among races and nationalities. Genes determine the amount and type of pigment produced in an individual.
The body produces two types of melanin:
pheomelanin, which is red to yellow in color
, and eumelanin, which is dark brown to black. The size of melanin granules varies from one individual to another.

Melanin helps protect sensitive cells from the sun's UV light, but it does not provide enough protection to prevent skin damage.
Strength and Flexibility of the Skin
The skin gets its strength , form and flexibility from two specific structures found with in the dermis: collagen and elastin. These two structures are composed of flexible protein fibers, and they make up 70 percent of the dermis.
is a fibrous protein that gives the skin form and strength.
This fiber makes up a large percentage of the dermis and provides structural support by holding together all the structures found in theis layer.
When collagen fibers are healthy, they allow the skin to stretch and contract as needed.
When collagen fibers become weak due to age, lack of moisture, environmental damage such as UV light,or frequent changes in weight, the skin will begin to lose its tone and suppleness. Wrinkles and sagging are often the result of collagen fibers losing their strength.
is a protein base similar to collagen that forms elastic tissue. It is interwoven with collagen fibers. Elastin fiber gives the skin its flexibility and elasticity. It can be weakened by the same factors that weaken collagen.
Both types of fibers are important to the overall health and appearance of the skin. As we age, gravity causes these fibers to weaken. In the end, a loss of elasticity results in sagging skin. A majority of scientists now believe that most signs of skin aging are caused by sun exposure over a lifetime.
Glands of the Skin
The skin contains two types of duct glands that extract materials from the blood to form new substances. These are sudoriferous glands and sebaceous glands.

Sudoriferous glands
also known as
sweat glands
, excrete perspiration and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals. They consist of a
secretory coil,
the coiled base of the sudoriferous gland, and a tube-like sweat duct that ends at the surface of the skin to form the sweat pore. Practically all parts of the body are supplied with sudiferous glands, which ae more numerous on the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, the forehead and the underarm (armpit).

The sudoriferous glands regulate body temperature and help eliminate waste products from the body. The evaporation of sweat cools the skin's surface. The activity of these glands is greatly increased by heat, exercise, emotions and certain drugs.
Sebaceous glands
also known as
oil glands
are connected to the hair follicles
. They consist of little sacs with ducts that open into the follicles. These glands secrete
a fatty or oily substance that lubricates the skin and preserves the softness of the hair. With the exceptions of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet, these glands are found in all parts of the body, particularly in the face and scalp, where they are larger.

Ordinarily, Sebum flows throughthe oil ducts leading to the mouths of the hair follicles. However,
when the sebum hardens and the duct becomes clogged, a pore impaction called a
, also known as
, a hair follicle filled with keratin and sebum , is formed. This can lead to acne, apapule or a pustule.

Acne, also known as
acne vulgaris
. is a skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions and bacteria known as P acne. A
, also known as
, is a small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid but may develop pus. A
is a raised, inflamed papule with a white or yellow center containing pus in the top of the lesion referred to as the head of the pimple.
Functions of the Skin
principal functions of the skin are:
heat regulation
Nutrition and Maintaining Skin Health
These are the six classes of nutrients that the body needs:
To keep your body healthy, people must ensure that what they eat helps regulate hydration , oil production and overall function of the cells. Skin disorders, fatigue,stress, depression and some diseases can be caused by unhealthful diet or improper hydration.
The USDA developed a food pyramid to help people determine the amounts of food they need to eat from the five basic food groups.
One of the best ways to follow a healthy diet is to read food labels.
Eat a variety of foods, select a diet that is high in fresh fruits, vegetables and grain products and low in fats, saturated fat and cholestrol, Eat moderate amounts of salt and sugar, including the sodium and modified sugars that are in prepared food products, drink an appropriate amount of water, keep consumption of alcoholic beverages to a minimum, balance your diet with the right amount of physical activity,and maintatin or improve your weight.
Vitamins and Dietary Supplements
Vitamins play an important role in the skin's health, often aiding in healing and softening the skin and in fighting diseases.
Vitamins such as A, C, D and E have been shown to have positive effects on the skin's health when taken by mouth.

Remember that vitamins are nutritional supplements, not cosmetic ingredients. In fact, the law prohibits manufacturers from claiming that any skin care product or cosmetic has nutritional value.
The following vitamins can help the skin in significant ways:
Vitamin A
- supports the overall health of the skin and aids in the health, function and repair of skin cells. It has been shown to improve the skin's elasticity and thickness.
Vitamin C
- is an important substance needed for the poper repair of the skin and tissues. Aids in and accelerates the skin's healing processes, and is vitally important in fighting the aging process and promotes the production of collagen in the skin's dermal tissues, keepin the skin healthy and firm.
Vitamin D
enables the body to properly absorb and use calcium,
the element for proper bone development and maintenance. It also promotes rapid healing of the skin.
Vitamin E
- helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun's UV light. Some people claim that vitamin E helps to heal damage to the skin's tissues when taken by mouth.

You should not depend on supplements to make up for poor nutrition. If clients ask you detailed questions about nutrition, you should ttell them to seek the advice of a physician or a nutritionist.
Water and the Skin
There is one item that no person can live without: water. To function properly, the body relies heavily on the benefits of water. This is especially true when it comes to the skin.
Water composes
of the body weight.
The amount of water needed by an individual varies, depending on body weight and the level of daily physical activity.

Drinking pure water is essential to the health of the skin and body because it sustains the health of the cells, assists with the elimination of toxins and waste, helps regulate the body's temperature and aids in proper digestion.
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