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Mineral, Rocks, and the Rock Cycle

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by

Katie Hansen

on 14 February 2014

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Transcript of Mineral, Rocks, and the Rock Cycle

Mineral, Rocks, and
the Rock Cycle

What
is a
Mineral?
A naturally occurring, inorganic, solid with a definite chemical composition and an orderly arrangement of atoms
Characteristics of a Mineral
Hardness
- determined by how easily you can scratch the mineral
*Measured on the Mohs Scale
Luster
- the way a mineral reflects light (shiny)
Streak
- color of a mineral when it is in powder form
A few
more clues...
Cleavage
- when a mineral breaks along a smooth, flat surface
Fracture
- when a mineral breaks in an uneven, rough or jagged way
*Other properties of minerals may include: magnetic, color, and appearance
What is a rock?
*A rock is a mixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter, or other natural materials
*Three kinds: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary
Igneous
Rocks
Rock formed when hot magma or lava cools and hardens
Intrusive - rocks that form below the surface of the Earth
Extrusive - rocks that form on the surface of the Earth
Metamorphic
Rocks
When existing rock is exposed to pressure and heat, changing its form and composition to a metamorphic rock
Sedimentary
Rocks
Forms when sediments (loose materials like rock fragments, mineral grains, and shells) are pressed and cemented together
Making
and Changing Sedimentary Rocks
Weathering:
When a rock is exposed to air, water, or ice, the rock breaks down into smaller pieces
Erosion:
the movement of weathered material to a new location where they are deposited
Compaction:
layers of sediments build up, pressure is applied and the small pieces of rock stick together
Cementation:
when pieces of minerals are deposited between pieces of sediment
The Rock Cycle Song
The Rock Cycle
Patterns
in the Rock Cycle
*Rock CONTINUOUSLY form and transform through the rock cycle
*This is a process that takes place over a long TIME
*Matter isn't created or destroyed, just transformed into a new form
http://app.discoveryeducation.com/techbook2:concept/view/guidConceptId/9829c03e-d332-4b96-8010-d532d81688f9/guidUnitId/75acc62d-3086-4f13-9bc7-68c540bce7c2#/tab=model-lesson-tab&page=1&subTab=sessions1and2
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