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Anat and Phys Ch. 5, Tanya Culligan

Ch. 5 presentation, Tanya Culligan, anatomy and physiology, tissues
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Tanya Culligan

on 16 November 2015

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Transcript of Anat and Phys Ch. 5, Tanya Culligan

Anat. & Phys.
Ch. 5: Tissues

Introduction
A.Cells are arranged in tissues that provide specific functions for the body.
B.Cells of different tissues are structured differently, which leads to their differences in function.
C.The tissues of the human body include four major types: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
Epithelial Tissues:
A. General Characteristics
1.Epithelial tissue is widespread throughout the body, covers organs, and lines body surfaces.
2.Epithelial tissues are anchored to a basement membrane, are made up of tightly packed cells containing little intercellular material, generally lack blood vessels, and are replaced frequently.
3. Epithelial tissues function in protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensory reception.
(Now come the types of epithelial tissues)
1.Simple squamous epithelium is made up of a single layer of thin, flattened cells.
B. Simple Squamous Epithelium
2.Because it is suited for diffusion, it functions in the exchange of gases in the lungs and lines blood and lymph vessels as well as body cavities.
C. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
1.Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a single layer of cube-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei.
2.It functions in secretion and absorption in the kidneys, and in secretion in glands.
D. Simple Columnar Epithelium
2.It lines the uterus, stomach, and intestines where it protects underlying tissues, secretes digestive fluids, and absorbs nutrients.
1.Simple columnar epithelium is made up of a row of elongated cells whose nuclei are all located near the basement membrane. It may be ciliated.
3.In the intestine, these cells possess microvilli that increase the surface area available for absorption.
4.Mucus-secreting goblet cells can be found among columnar cells.
E. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
1.These cells appear layered due to the varying positions of their nuclei within the row of cells, but are not truly layered.
2.Cilia may be present, along with mucus-secreting globlet cells, that line and sweep debris from respiratory tubes.
F. Stratified Squamous Epithelium
1.This type of tissue is made up of layers of flattened cells that are designed to protect underlying layers.
2.It makes up the outer layer of skin, and lines the mouth, throat, vagina, and anal canal.
3.In the skin, outer layers of cells undergo keratinization; however, this process does not occur where tissues remain moist in the throat, vagina, or anal canal.
G. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
1. This tissue consists of two to three layers of cuboidal cells lining a lumen of the mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas.
2. Several layers of cells provide greater protection than one single layer.
H.Stratified Columnar Epithelium
1.This tissue consists of several layers of cells and is found in the vas deferens, part of the male urethra, and parts of the pharynx.
I. Transitional Epithelium
1.Transitional epithelium is designed to distend and return to its normal size, as it does in the lining of the urinary bladder.
2.This design provides distensibility and keeps urine from diffusing back into the internal cavity.
J. Glandular Epithelium
1.This tissue is made up of cells designed to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids.
2.Glands that secrete products into ducts are exocrine; those that secrete into body fluids and blood are called endocrine.
3.Glands are classified by the ways the glands secrete their products.
a.Merocrine glands release fluid products by exocytosis (pancreas) and are grouped as serous which produce a watery fluid or mucus which produce a thicker, protective substance.
b.Apocrine glands lose portions of their cell bodies during secretion (mammary glands).
c.Holocrine glands release entire cells (sebaceous glands).
Connective Tissues:
Muscle Tissues:
Nervous Tissues:
G. Cartilage
A. General Characteristics
1.Muscle cells, or fibers, can contract and consist of three major types.
B. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
1.Skeletal muscle is attached to bone and can be controlled by conscious effort (voluntary).
2.The cells (muscle fibers) are long and cylindrical, striated, have many nuclei and contract from nervous impulse.
C. Smooth Muscle Tissue
1.Smooth muscle tissue lacks striations, is uninucleate, and consists of spindle-shaped cells.
2.This involuntary muscle is found in the walls of internal organs, and in the digestive tract, blood vessels, and urinary bladder.
D. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
1.Cardiac muscle tissue is found only in the heart and consists of branching fibers that are connected to each other with intercalated disks.
2.This involuntary muscle has a single nucleus in each cell but appears striated.
A.Nervous tissues are found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
B.Neurons, or nerve cells, conduct nervous impulses while helper cells, or neuroglia, support and nourish the neurons.
Epithelial Membranes
A. These membranes are considered to be organs because they are composed of more than one type of tissue
B. They are sheet-like structures composed of an epithelial layer and a layer of connective tissue
C. They cover body surfaces and line body cavities
D.Four main types of epithelial membranes are serous, mucus, synovial, and cutaneous
Since we are so focused on tissues right now -
BRING ME MY PAPER TOWELS
AND COLORED PENCILS AND ANYTHING ELSE TO GET YOUR NAME OFF THE BOARD
BRING ME MY PAPER TOWELS
AND COLORED PENCILS AND ANYTHING ELSE TO GET YOUR NAME OFF THE BOARD
The End.
BRING MY PAPER TOWELS,
COLORED PENCILS, AND WHATEVER ELSE TO GET YOUR NAME OFF THE BOARD
A. General Characteristics
1. Connective tissues bind, support, protect, serve as frameworks, fill spaces, store fat, produce blood cells, protect against infection, and repair tissue damage.

2. Unlike epithelial tissues, connective tissues have an abundance of extracellular matrix, or intercellular material, throughout, and have good blood supplies (except cartilage).
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