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Existentialism

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Dakota Edmunds

on 14 August 2016

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Transcript of Existentialism

Think about it like this...
Existentialism – A Definition
Existentialism in the broader sense is a 20th century philosophy that is centered upon the analysis of existence and of the way humans find themselves existing in the world. The notion is that humans exist first and then each individual spends a lifetime changing their essence or nature.

In simpler terms, existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. The belief is that people are searching to find out who and what they are throughout life as they make choices based on their experiences, beliefs, and outlook. And personal choices become unique without the necessity of an objective form of truth. An existentialist believes that a person should be forced to choose and be responsible without the help of laws, ethnic rules, or traditions (source: allaboutphilosophy.org).
Existentialism
Vs.
Objectivism
Objective: 2 teams line up, First person in line is told the question they
WHISPER
the question to the person next to them

ONLY
(so everyone has a chance to answer) the last person in the line has to make a basket before they may answer. First group wins the
Existentialism
Dakota, Sergio, Maximilius, Valeria

Famous Existentialists:

"Father of Existentialism"
" Life is not a problem to be solved, but a reality to be experienced."
Fear and Trembling (1843)
FYODOR DOSTOYEVSKY
" Happiness does not lie in happiness, but in the achievement of it."
Notes From The Underground (1864)



FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE
" You have your way. I have my way. As for the right way, the correct way, and the only way, it does not exist."
Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (1883-1885)

MARTIN HEIDEGGER
" We name time when we say: every thing has its time. This means: everything which actually is, every being comes and goes at the right time and remains for a time during the time allotted to it. Every thing has its time. "
Being and Time (1927)

" Life has no meaning the moment you lose the illusion of being eternal. "
Nausea (1948)

JEAN-PAUL SARTRE
ALBERT CAMUS
" In order to exist, man must rebel, but rebellion must respect the limits that it discovers in itself - limits where minds meet, and in meeting, begin to exist. "
The Stranger (1942)
SØREN KIERKEGAARD
Things to note before we start:
Please, no interruptions while we are presenting unless there is a question to be clarified; this means no shouting, side conversations, or distractions of any sort.
Keep in mind that you will need be able to read, as well as listen to what we are saying because a decent amount information will not be on this presentation visually but verbally ( test and quiz will encompass both visual and verbal knowledge, so pay attention).
Candy or rewards will not be given to those who shout their answers since it is not fair to those who act by the rules and are respectful.

Existential Themes
What is Existentialism?

The Game is Telephone!!!!
PRIZE
Existentialism's Origin
Work Cited
Importance of the individual
Importance of choice
Anxiety, regarding life, death, contingencies, and extreme situations.
Meaning and absurdity
Authenticity
Social criticism
Importance of personal relations
Atheism vs. other religion
Religion
1843-Present
There were hints of the existential philosophy here and there; most notably with Plato, Aristotle, and even Socrates. Although, it was given depth and meaning when Soren Kierkegaard explicitly used this philosophy in his many works of literature.
The aftermath of the Second World War gave birth to a generation of enthusiasm for what would be the most notable uprising of philosophical ideas concerned with existential approaches to life.
Impact on Society
Existentialistic ideas came out of a time in society when there was a deep sense of despair following the Great Depression and World War II. There was a spirit of optimism in society that was destroyed by World War I and its mid-century calamities. This despair has been articulated by existentialist philosophers well into the 1970s and continues on to this day as a popular way of thinking and reasoning (with the freedom to choose one’s preferred moral belief system and lifestyle).
An existentialist could either be a religious moralist, agnostic relativist, or an amoral atheist. Kierkegaard, a religious philosopher, Nietzsche, an anti-Christian, Sartre, an atheist, and Camus an atheist, are credited for their works and writings about existentialism. Sartre is noted for bringing the most international attention to existentialism in the 20th century.

Each basically agrees that human life is in no way complete and fully satisfying because of suffering and losses that occur when considering the lack of perfection, power, and control one has over their life. Even though they do agree that life is not optimally satisfying, it nonetheless has meaning. Existentialism is the search and journey for true self and true personal meaning in life.
Most importantly, it is the arbitrary act that existentialism finds most objectionable-that is, when someone or society tries to impose or demand that their beliefs, values, or rules be faithfully accepted and obeyed. Existentialists believe this destroys individualism and makes a person become whatever the people in power desire thus they are dehumanized and reduced to being an object. Existentialism then stresses that a person's judgment is the determining factor for what is to be believed rather than by arbitrary religious or secular world values.
Essentially, both concepts are the same in the sense that man should be able carve out his own path but, objectivism, a concept accepted by Ayn Rand, is different in that whatever choices one makes is predetermined to an extent wherever there is a limit.
An example of objectivism would be an apple seed; although how it may take shape is unknown and a choice, it is, however, predetermined whether the tree inside will grow to be strong or weak.
Edmund Husserl

Existential Quotes From Books
"The great mystery is not that we should have been thrown down here at random between the profusion of matter and that of the stars; it is that from our very prison we should draw, from our own selves, images powerful enough to deny our own nothingness."
"I believe that the struggle against death, the unconditional and self-willed determination to live, is the motive power behind the lives and activities of all outstanding men."
"Are you shoveling to survive, or surviving to shovel?"
"I exist, that is all, and I find it nauseating."
"Logic may indeed be unshakeable, but it cannot withstand a man who is determined to live. Where was the judge he had never seen? Where was the High Court he had never reached? He raised his hands and spread out all his fingers. But the hands of one of the men closed round his throat, just as the other drove the knife deep into his heart and turned it twice."
"I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allen Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids—and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me. Like the bodiless heads you see sometimes in circus sideshows, it is as though I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard, distorting glass. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination—indeed, everything and anything except me."
"But yet I am firmly persuaded that a great deal of consciousness, every sort of consciousness, in fact, is a disease."
"Throughout the whole absurd life I'd lived, a dark wind had been rising toward me from somewhere deep in my future, across years that were still to come, and as it passed, this wind leveled whatever was offered to me at the time, in years no more real than the ones I was living. What did other people's deaths or a mother's love matter to me; what did his God or the lives people choose or the fate they think they elect matter to me when we're all elected by the same fate . . ."
Existentialism
vs.
Absurdism
Absurdism is just a branch of existentialism that, for the most part, still entitles the philosophy that one can pave their own path through action, thought, or responsibility; the only condition that separates Albert Camus's absurdism from existentialism is that failure be inevitable, despite all the effort and willpower taken to approach the doors of success.
"Natural objects, for example, must be experienced before any theorizing about them can occur."
Logical Investigations (1900-1901)
Rahn, John. Online-literatrure.com. Jalic Inc, 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

The-philosophy.com. N.p., 15 May 2012. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"The History of Existentialism." The History of Existentialism. N.p., n.d..Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Existentialism." Flickr. Yahoo!, 15 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Sept. 2014

"Booston.fr." Booston.fr. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Fyodor Dostoyevsky." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 26 Sept. 2014

"Friedrich Nietzsche." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Sept. 2014. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Martin Heidegger: The Philosopher Who Fell for Hitler." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 04 Dec. 2014. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

Wpclipart.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Existentialism - Google Search." Existentialism - Google Search. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

Wikipedia. N.p., 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Notes from Underground." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Sept. 2014. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Edmund Husserl." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Sept. 2014. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.

"Existentialism." AllAboutPhilosophy.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2014.

"The Origins of Existentialism." Existentialism Kierkegaard and Sartre. N.p., 23 Feb. 2011. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Cult Fiction - Top 10 List - Top Ten List - Top 10 Existential Novels." Cult Fiction - Top 10 List - Top Ten List. N.p., 14 May 2008. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Absurdism." Existentialism and the Absurd { Philosophy Index }. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

"Existentialism." Existentialism. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.
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