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Inside Collaborative Networks: Ten Lessons for Public Manage
Transcript of Inside Collaborative Networks: Ten Lessons for Public Manage
Presentation by Lisa Schwartz
Ph.D, University of Pittsburgh, 1967
M.A, University of Pittsburgh, 1963
B.S, University of Wisconsin, 1962
Inside Collaborative Networks: Ten Lessons for Public Managers
Lesson 3: Network involvement brings several advantages that keep busy administrators involved
Key to sustained network involvement is performance and the key to performance is public value
4 types of public value
1) The value added to the manager or professional
2) Benefits accruing to the home agency
3) The collective process skills that accrue from working together over a sustained period of time
4) The concrete results accrued
Lesson 4: Networks are different from organizations but not completely different
Lesson 5: Not all networks make the types of policy and program adjustments ascribed to them in the literature
There are 4 types of networks
All suggest that networks must be analyzed with an open mind
Lesson 1: The network is not the only vehicle of collaborative management.
The managers in the study say that networks are just one of many collaborative contacts
local governments, nonprofits, and for-profits are bilaterally linked with state and federal agencies through grants, contracts or cooperative agreements.
Can also be inter-agency
Lesson 2: Managers continue to do the bulk of their work within the hierarchy
most managers said that they spent most of their time working within the hierarchy
Program specialists and boundary spanners are working on networking more
Example: developmental disabilities professionals inside and outside the gov't
Example administrator spanner in the Nebraska State Game and Fish Commission --> his job was to be a liaison between environmental agencies and those dealing with rural development
Awards, Honors & Certifications
Charles Levine Memorial Award for Career Excellence in Teaching, Research and Service, ASPA/NASPAA, 2012
Fellow, National Academ of Public Administration, 2011
Best Book Award 2007 in the Public and Nonprofit Division of the Academy of Management for Managing Within Networks: Adding Value to Public Organizations
Daniel Elazar Distinguished Scholar Award (2005), American Political Science Association, Section on Federalism and Intergovernmental Relations, for Contributions in intergovernmental relations and federalism, Washington, D.C.
Louis Brownlow Book Awkard (with Mike McGuire), National Academy of Public Administration, Outstanding Book in Public Administration of 2003, Collaborative Public Management (Georgetown University Press, 2003), Washington D.C.
Donald Stone Award, American Society for Public Administration, for contributions to intergovernmental management, 2000, San Diego
Lesson 6: Collaborative decisions or agreements are the products of a particular type of mutual learning and adjustment
6 predecision or argreement learning strategies
1)Group discussion or exchange of ideas
2) Political negotiation of sensitive concerns and intensely felt needs
3) direct application of technology or preestablished decision rules or formats
4) application of preestablished, formulaic procedures
5) data-driven decisions or agreements
6) predecision simulation or electronic base groupware or other decision techniques
Lesson 7: The most distinctive collaborative activity of all the networks proved to be their work in public sector knowledge management
Knowledge management has 2 dimensions
1) Explicit Knowledge
2) Rules of thumb
To manage knowledge, must bring two dimensions and display and manifest it
supported by use of information and commnications technology
Lesson 8: Despite the cooperative spirit and aura of accommodation in collaborative efforts, networks are not without conflicts and power issues
Conflicts happen in a network
People want power in network
Lesson 9: Networks have their collaborative costs, as well as their benefits
7 costs associated with network participation
1) giving up agency authority or turf
2) time and opportunity costs lost to the home agency as a result of network involvement
3) time and energy costs resulting from the protracted decision-making process, based on nonhierarchical, multiorganizational, multicultural human relations processes
4) network gravitation toward consensus-based risk aversive decision agendas
5) resource "hoarding" or agencies' failure or unwillingness to contribute needed resources
6) public policy barriers embedded in legislation, coupled with legislators' or other policy makers' unwillingness to make needed changes, which, in turn, frustrated collaborative decisions
7) agreements not reached because of the exertion of organizational power or the withholding of power
Lesson 10: Networks alter the boundaries of the state only in the most marginal ways; they do not appear to be replacing public bureaucracies in any way
To a degree network and the involvement of nongovernmental organizations clearly influenced the courses of action taken by the government... BUT
1) Policy decisions, almost always the public institution that makes the final call
2) gov't administrators at federal, state, and local levels who are the core or among the core actors in the network
3) collaborative efforts outside the network form are more tightly controlled by the gov't
1. Does Maslow's theories on hierarchy relate to collaborative networking?
Do networks still fight for hierarchy?
2. Do you all think the bureaucracy is threatened by collaborative networks?
3. Should politics play into collaborative networks?
Could this be related to political administrative dichotomy?
"Robert Agranoff | IBM Center for the Business of Government." Robert Agranoff | IBM Center for the Business of Government. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
Shafritz, Jay M., Albert C. Hyde, and Robert Agranoff. "Inside Collaborative Networks: Ten Lessons for Public Managers." Classics of Public Administration. 7th ed. Australia: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2012. 610-21. Print.
"SPEA - School of Public and Environmental Affairs." Faculty Directory. Indiana University, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
Background Info on the Reading
What is a network?
Social Network V.S Public Management Network
"Public Management networks are, in every sense, collaborative connections like social networks, although they not only comprise representatives of disparate organizations but also go beyond analytical modes. They are real-world public entities." (Agranoff 610)
Paper is based off studies in which the theoretical findings emanate from field-based data.
I.e managerial lessons that follow come from the managers themselves
Network Differences from Organizations
players at the table begin largely equal as organizational representatives
most actions are discussed and decided by consensus
resources are multi-sourced
relatively few sanctions for withdrawal
Network Similarities to Organizations
require some form of organization
stated missions and goals
School of Public Environmental Affairs at Indiana University, 1980-2002
Northern Illinois University, 1966-1980
Cathedradico, Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset, Madrid, Spain, 1990- present
Visiting Fellow, Federalism Research Center, Australian National University, 1995
Overseas Research Fellow Center for Science Development, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa, 1997
Visiting Lecturer, Ph.D Program, University of Basque Country, Spain, 2005-present