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Middle Ages to Renaissance
Transcript of Middle Ages to Renaissance
Early Medieval West- "Dark Ages"
At last King Lothar had decreed that all the churches in his kingdom should pay a third part of their income to his fisc. But when all the bishops, albeit unwillingly, had consented and signed their names, the blessed Bishop Injuriosus, manfully refusing, disdained to sign, saying: "If you wish to take God's property the Lord will quickly take away your kingdom; for it is unjust that your barns should be filled through the money of the poor who ought rather to feed at your hands." And being wroth with the king he departed unceremoniously.
Then the king, much perturbed, fearing the spirit of the blessed Saint Martin, sent after him with gifts, craving his pardon, condemning what he had done, and at the same time asking that he would ask the help of the blessed Saint Martin on his behalf.
Gregory of Tours--(594)
Early Medieval Life
"Those who work"
When he made his last journey thither (Rome), he also had other ends in view. The Romans had inflicted many injuries upon the Pontiff Leo, trying to tear out his eyes and cut out his tongue, so that he had been complied to call upon the King for help [Nov 24, 800]. Charles accordingly went to Rome, to set in order the affairs of the Church, which were in great confusion, and passed the whole winter there. It was then that he received the titles of Emperor and Augustus [Dec 25, 800].......He cherished the Church of St. Peter the Apostle at Rome above all other holy and sacred places, and heaped its treasury with a vast wealth of gold, silver, and precious stones. He sent great and countless gifts to the popes; and throughout his whole reign the wish that he had nearest at heart was to re-establish the ancient authority of the city of Rome under his care and by his influence.....
Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne
“Those who Pray”
That he alone can depose or reinstate bishops.
That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.
That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
That he himself may be judged by no one.
That the Roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness.
That he may depose and reinstate bishops without assembling a synod.
That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men. (Pope Gregory VII)
The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)
Middle Ages to Renaissance
FRANCESCO PETRARCH (c. 1370): LETTER TO POSTERITY
Greetings. It is possible that some word of me may have come to you, though even this is doubtful, since an insignificant and obscure name will scarcely penetrate far in either time or space. If, however, you should have heard of me, you may desire to know what manner of man I was, or what was the outcome of my labours, especially those of which some description or, at any rate, the bare titles may have reached you.
To begin with myself, then, the utterances of men concerning me will differ widely, since in passing judgment almost everyone is influenced not so much by truth as by preference, and good and evil report alike know no bounds. I was, in truth, a poor mortal like yourself, neither very exalted in my origin, nor, on the other hand, of the most humble birth, but belonging, as Augustus Caesar says of himself, to an ancient family.
What can we say about the mindset (thoughts, beliefs, knowledge) of the individual who wrote this letter?
Medieval Agricultural Revolution
Black Death/Bubonic Plague (1348-50)
Hence, it is necessary for a prince wishing to hold his own to know how to do wrong, and to make use of it or not according to necessity. Therefore, putting on one side imaginary things concerning a prince, and discussing those which are real, I say that all men when they are spoken of, and chiefly princes for being more highly placed, are remarkable for some of those qualities which bring them either blame or praise; and thus it is that one is reputed liberal, another miserly...; one is reputed generous, one rapacious; one cruel, one compassionate; one faithless, another faithful.... And I know that every one will confess that it would be most praiseworthy in a prince to exhibit all the above qualities that are considered good; but because they can neither be entirely possessed nor observed, for human conditions do not permit it, it is necessary for him to be sufficiently prident that he may know how to avoid the reproach of those vices which would lose him his state...
Niccolo Machiavelli: "The Prince" (1513)
We call those studies liberal which are worthy of a free man; those studies by which we attain and practice virtue and wisdom; that education which calls forth, trains and develops those highest gifts of body and of mind which ennoble meny......For I may affirm with fullest conviction that we shall not have attained wisdom in our later years unless in our earliest we have sincerely entered on its search.
Petrus Paulus Vergerius: The New Education (c. 1400)
Justinian the Great and Theodora (r. 527-565)
HE took a wife: and in what manner she was born and bred, and, wedded to this man, tore up the Roman Empire by the very roots, I shall now relate.
Acacius was the keeper of wild beasts used in the amphitheater in Constantinople; he belonged to the Green faction and was nicknamed the Bearkeeper. This man, during the rule of Anastasius, fell sick and died, leaving three daughters named Comito, Theodora and Anastasia: of whom the eldest was not yet seven years old.
When these children reached the age of girlhood, their mother put them on the local stage, for they were fair to look upon..... Forthwith, she (Theodora) became a courtesan, and such as the ancient Greeks used to call a common one, at that: for she was not a flute or harp player, nor was she even trained to dance, but only gave her youth to anyone she met, in utter abandonment....On the field of pleasure she was never defeated. Often she would go picnicking with ten young men or more, in the flower of their
strength and virility, and dallied with them all, the whole night through.
Procopius- "Secret History" (c. 550CE)
XVIII. HOW JUSTINIAN KILLED A TRILLION PEOPLE
THAT Justinian was not a man, but a demon, as I have said, in human form, one might prove by considering the enormity of the evils he brought upon mankind. For in the monstrousness of his actions the power of a fiend is manifest. Certainly an accurate reckoning of all those whom he destroyed would be impossible, I think, for anyone but God to make. Sooner could one number, I fancy, the sands of the sea than the men this Emperor murdered..........And some of those who have been with Justinian at the palace late at night, men who were pure of spirit, have thought they saw a strange demoniac form taking his place. One man said that the Emperor suddenly rose from his throne and walked about, and indeed he was never wont to remain sitting for long, and immediately Justinian's head vanished, while the rest of his body seemed to ebb and flow; whereat the beholder stood aghast and fearful, wondering if his eyes were deceiving him. But presently he perceived the vanished head filling out and joining the body again as strangely as it had left it.
Procopius- "Secret History" (c. 550CE)
Viking Age (800-1000)
Divine Right of Kings
II Aethelstan's Code (924–939)
And we have pronounced concerning breaking into a church; if he [who is accused] be convicted at the three-fold ordeal, he is to pay according to what the law-book says.
Concerning treachery to a lord. And we have pronounced concerning treachery to a lord, that he [who is accused] is to forfeit his life if he cannot deny it or is afterwards convicted at the three-fold ordeal.
Concerning witchcraft. And we have pronounced concerning witchcrafts and sorceries and secret attempts on life, that, if anyone is killed by such, and he [who practised them] cannot deny it, he is to forfeit his life.
Three Orders: Those who work, those who pray, and those who fight.
Etic vs. Emic
Holy Roman Empire (Germany)
Otto I (962)
King Henry IV (1056–1106)
What was life like for different groups of medieval people (knights, peasants, clergy, women, etc.)?
Impact of the Crusades
No Freeman shall be taken, or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any otherwise destroyed; nor will we pass upon him, nor condemn him, but by lawful Judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the Land. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right.
Magna Carta (1215)
Martin Luther (1517)
Pope Urban II
“This royal city is now held captive by her enemies, and made pagan by those who know not God. She asks and longs to be liberated and does not cease to beg you to come to her aid.....All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested........You should shudder, brethren, you should shudder at raising a violent hand against Christians; it is less wicked to brandish your sword against Saracens. It is the only warfare that is righteous, for it is charity to risk your life for your brothers.”
Pope Urban II: Call to Crusade (1095)
In Florence, despite all that human wisdom and forethought could devise to avert it..... the pestilence began to be horribly apparent by symptoms that shewed
....in men and women alike it first betrayed itself by the emergence of certain tumours in the groin or the armpits, some of which grew as large as a common apple, others as an egg, some more, some less, which the common folk called gavoccioli. From the two said parts of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous
Giovanni Boccaccio: Decameron (ca. 1350–1353)
How do science and religion meet in the construction and design of Gothic cathedrals? Give specific examples.
In our own age there has been born the Emperor Justinian, who, taking over the State when it was harassed by disorder, has not only made it greater in extent, but also much more illustrious, by expelling from it those barbarians .....Moreover, finding the laws obscure because they had become far more numerous than they should be, and in obvious confusion because they disagreed with each other, he preserved them by cleansing them of the mass of their verbal trickery, and by controlling their discrepancies with the greatest firmness
"The Buildings of Justinian" by Procopius
Roman Lutetia (Paris) c.300 CE
East and West after the "Fall of Rome"
Eastern Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire
Reconquest of West
What could impact our interpretation of this document?
How does Procopius view Justinian and what are Justinian's accomplishments?
Cyril and Methodius
Vladimir the Great
Merovingian Paris c.600 CE
Romans Elites in the West
Flee into the Church
Honor and Obligations
the legal and social system of Medieval Europe in which vassals were protected and maintained by their lords, usually through the granting of land, and were required to serve under them in war.
Church and State
Crowning (Dec. 25th 800CE)
Angles, Saxons, and Jute Invasions (400s)
Augustine of Canterbury (c. 605CE)
Viking Invasions (700-800s)
The creation and expansion of the "Middle Ages"
Norman Conquest (1066)
William the Conqueror
Battle of Hastings
Hugh Capet ( 941–996)
And he ordained that every man in his whole kingdom -ecclesiastic or layman, each according to his vow and calling-who had previously promised fealty to him as king should now make this promise to him as emperor; and that those who had hitherto not made this promise should all, down to those under 12 years of age, do likewise.
Capitulary of Charlemagne Issued in the Year 802
The Pope, Bishops, Monks
Stephen I of Hungary
Effects of Black Death
Decline of Serfdom
What were some of the results of the Crusades?
New (Old) Ideas
Establishment of Universities
Rise of a Vernacular Literature
Gutenburg's Printing Press (c. 1435)
The Renaissance & the spread knowledge
Religion and Science
• Crop rotation
• Use of a heavy plow
• Use of a horse rather than oxen for plowing
• Water mills and wind mills
Those who pray and those who fight
Sit in your wiki groups
Florence Baptistry Doors
Hundred Years' War
(1337 to 1453)
Joan of Arc
What is due Friday at 11:55pm?
Early Medieval France
"Those who fight"
Kings, Knights, Nobles
Peace and Truce of God
Henry, king not through usurpation, but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false monk...I, Henry, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, come down, and be damned throughout the ages (King Henry IV)
Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085)