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Transcript of Grammar Presentations
The cell is found in the upper part of the leaf. *We use in with towns and countries. E.g in Canada
in the north of Italy E.g Ask at the cinema for details. At the point where the two lines meet. at in *Use at with a place. *Use on for things on the surface or side of something, and with islands. ON E.g Some lichens grow on the rock.
There were no trees on the island. *We generally use on for trains, buses, ships and planes, and in for cars. E.g I met an old friend on the train. * Above means at a higher level than something, and not touching it. They put a blanket over him to keep him warm. into,out of *Into describes movement in and out of is the opposite.
In everyday speech, out is used in stead of out of. E.g Two men came into the bank. Everyone ran out of the burning building *Out of is also the opposite of in. E.g Mr Smith is out of the building at the moment. inside, outside *Inside is used to describe something in a room etc, especially when the speaker is outside. E.gThe police were watching what was happening in side the bank.
Can you stand outside the door, please. to,from *Use to with verbs of movement, change etc, though not with home. E.g Many children go to school by bus.
I went home at 6.00 *Use to and from to describe the two points of a movement. E.g It changes from a liquid to a solid. Look it up under 'Mammals'. Children under five are admitted free. Under can mean 'covered by', as in under the bed and under a pile of books. below,under,beneath *Below means 'at a lower level' and occurs in phrases such as below zero;
below average; see below for more information *We also use it in these phrases: *Beneath means 'exactly under' and can be used in place of under. E.g We sat beneath/under a tree. Beneath/under a pile of books. above,over Put your hands above your head. There is a forest above the village. *Over is the opposite of under, and can mean 'touching or covering'. *Above and over can be used to mean the same thing,
especially when something is at a higher level exactly vertically. They lived in a flat above/over the bank. preposition + noun + of at the end of at the front of in front of
at the side of at the back of in the middle of
at the beginning of at the bottom of at the end of at the top of The cinema is at the end of the street.
Two very tall people were sitting in front of me. prepositions as adverbs Many prepositions are used as adverbs. E.g Is Susan in ? (at home) No, she's out. (not at home)
From the mountain, we could see a village far below Other examples: away(on holiday); in doors; inside; outside; underneath. E.g Peter is away at the moment. He's on a trip abroad. In France, aetually
Let's go indoors/inside. It's getting cold outside.
If you can't find it on top, look underneath. prepositions after verbs, adjectives, and before nouns verb+preposition+noun Every one laughed at the cartoon.
I can't deal with this problem.
I suffer from panic attacks.
You can depend on us.
They were protesting against the war:
We laughed about the problem the next day. I' ll pay for your ticket.
I find it hard to cope with stress.
How do they differ from one another?
You can't rely on Tom to arrive on time.
They're talking / arguing about history
What does the word 'input' refer to? verb + person + preposition + noun /-ing verb+preposition+nounI-ing We apologize for the delay.
He can't concentrate on his work.
I' m not used to studying late at night.
They succeeded in making matters worse. Dr Sims specializes in back problems.
Let me congratulate you on your success.
I insist on seeing the manager: verb+noun+preposition+noun I always confuse 'lie' with 'lay'.
1' 11 have to discuss this with your parents. They blamed everything on me.
I prefer tea to coffee. They accused her of cheating.
You remind me of someone I once knew.
Can you provide us with a copy? adjective+preposition You' re right/wrong about that.
I' m not sure about the answer:
I' m sorry for being late.
Are you afraid of spiders?
Are you angry with me?
I' m bored with the same old routine.
We were shocked / annoyed by the news. I' m sorry / upset / angry about that.
Our town is famous for its cakes.
Who is responsible for this mess?
Speech is different from writing.
I' m annoyed with you !
I wish I was good at maths.
1s your sister married to him ?
Are you interested in jazz? Are you on holiday here?
That sounds good in theory.
My little brother is in trouble.
In fact, this is true.
I think he did it on purpose.
After running, I was out of breath.
Don't worry, he is out of danger.
I was under the impression you knew
There's no school tomorrow after all. preposition+noun phrases Is this boat for sale ?
We found the answer in the end.
In practice it doesn't work.
Are we in danger (of + ing) ?
It happens on average once a year:
They received the letter by mistake.
The bus was out of control.
Sorry, I' m out of practice.
Everything is under control. Phrasal verbs we cannot put the object between the verb and preposition. Verb+preposition came across (find by chance) getting at (suggest) look after (look or behave like) run through (explain) I came across this word in amyazine EXample What are you getting at exactly Will you look after her mother Let's run through the details Verb+adverb particle These verbs do not have an object bulid up (increase) broken down (stop working) showing off (behave to attract attention) Example the traffic builds up have every day my car has broken down again stop showing off jim always turns up late come up with (think of) verb+adverb particle+perposition the object always come after the preposition EXAMPLE turn up (arrive of the unexpectedly) have you come up with any ideas yet when are you going to get round to your work I can't put up with Alan! I'm really looking forward to seeing you get round to (finally do something) put up with (accept someting) look forward (think with pleasura about future verb + adverb particie
We can put the object between the verb and particie, or after the particie. If the object is a large
num ber of words we put it after the particie. If the object is a pronoun eg me, it, him, we put it
between the verb and the particie. We can sometimes guessthe meaning. carry out (do a piece of work) give in (give it to the teacher) work out (find the solution) put off (postponed) Example Try to carry out a 'task analysis'. Can you give in your homework now We have put off the match until next week. You can work out the answer for homework.