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Lecture 1: Beer and the Agricultural Revolution

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Christian Knudsen

on 10 September 2015

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Transcript of Lecture 1: Beer and the Agricultural Revolution

Lecture 1: Beer and the Agricultural Revolution
Hunter Gatherers
Paleolithic Era - 2.5 million years ago to 10,000 years ago
Agricultural Revolution
10,000 years ago -- Neolithic period
What is Beer?
Beer in ancient World
Sources
-archaeology: tools, bones, dwellings. garbage

-cave paintings

-modern anthropology
Cave of Altamira, Spain
ca. 14000 years ago
Hunter-gatherers
-small groups, nomadic lifestyle
-followed food resources
-division of labour
-men traveled in hunting expeditions
-women and children gathered plants, nuts, roots and fruits
Bushmen (San)
South Africa
-gradual shift
-advantages of cereal grains
(wheat, barely)
-- could be stored for a long time
-encouraged people to settle
-eventually gave birth to first
permanent settlements, and then
cities
-change in division of labour
-birth of patriarchy
-other consequences -- population.
specialization
-Sumer (ca. 4000 -- 2000 BCE)
Sumerian Language
-both spoken and written language
-written form: cuneiform (earliest written language)
How can we read it?
Behistun Inscription
ca. 522-486 BCE
Trilingual document:
Old Persian, Elamite, and Babylonian (a later form of Akkadian)
Modern Process
Sprouted Barley, water and yeast
Step 1 - Soak barley in water, allow to sprout
Step 2 - dry barley to stop sprouting (Malt)
Step 3 - Heat dried sprouted barley in water (Mash)
Step 4 - After some time, stain away grains -- left with sugar water (Wort)
Step 5-Boil wort (add optional flavor ingredients -- eg. hops) -- santizes and allows flavors to dissolve.
Step 6- cool wort, add yeast, put in airtight container and allow to ferment for 2-4 weeks.
Step 7- Beer!!!!
Steps to make beer
Barley
Hops
Beer vs Bread?
Beer and Writing
Beer in Egypt
Drunkards of Menkaure
-Beer and health (antibiotics)
-Beer and afterlife
Full transcript