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Copy of 2016-2017 Literary Terms & Devices

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Gayle Famiglietti

on 8 September 2016

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Transcript of Copy of 2016-2017 Literary Terms & Devices

The place and time in which the story takes place.
There may be multiple settings in a story, especially in novels.
Setting
Plot
The series of events that make up a story
Theme
The central message of a literary work. Often it is a generalization about human beings or life.
Sensory Details/Imagery
Sensory Details
, also referred to as
imagery
, consists of words and phrases that appeal to readers’ senses. Writers use sensory details to help readers imagine how things look, feel, smell, sound, and taste.

It was dark and dim in the forest. – The words “dark” and “dim” are visual images.
The children were screaming and shouting in the fields. - “Screaming” and “shouting” appeal to our sense of hearing or auditory sense.
The stench coming off of the wet dog was repulsive. – the word "stench" evokes our sense of smell or olfactory sense.
The girl ran her hands on a soft satin fabric. – The idea of “soft” in this example appeals to our sense of touch or tactile sense.
The fresh, juicy orange was very cold and sweet. – “ juicy” and “sweet” when associated with oranges have an effect on our sense of taste or gustatory sense.

Mastery ELA 8
Literary Terms & Devices
The main components of the
plot
are:
Exposition
- This is the opening of a story where the setting, main characters and the conflict is introduced.

Rising action
- This is the part of the story where the character(s) struggles with a problem.

Climax
- This is the height of the action

Resolution
- This is where the loose ends of the story are tied up.
Narrator
The teller of the story
First-person
- the narrator is a character in the story and uses first-person pronouns, such as "I" , "me", "we", and "us".

Third-person
- the narrator is not a character; he or she uses third-person pronouns, such as "he", "she", "it", "they", and "them".
Yes,
second-person
does exist. It uses the pronouns you, your, and yours to address a reader or listener directly.

Though the
second-person
point of view only rarely serves as a narrative voice in fiction, it does appear in letters, speeches, and other forms of nonfiction, including many types of business writing and technical writing.

The
second-person
point of view is commonly used in step-by-step instructions--that is, in a directive process analysis that explains how to do or make something.
If a narrator knows everything that is happening to every character, he/she is "omniscient" or all-knowing
Characterization
Characterization includes all the techniques writers use to create and develop characters. There are four basic methods of developing a character.
1. Presenting the character’s words and actions
2. Presenting the character’s thoughts
3. Describing the character’s appearance
4. Showing what others think about the character
Static and Dynamic Characters
Static characters [flat]:
characters who change little, if at all, throughout the literary work.
Dynamic characters [round]:
characters who change significantly throughout the work.
Symbol
Anything that stands for or represents something other than itself.
Red can symbolize passion or danger
Roses stand for romance
The United States flag represents freedom
The Mockingjay in "The Hunger Games" series symbolizes rebellion
Examples:
Foreshadowing -
The use of clues that suggest what will occur later in the story
In chapter 1 of The Witch of Blackbird Pond, Kit recognizes that there was something strange about this country of America, something that they all seemed to share and understand and she did not.
Example:
Conflict
Conflict
is the struggle between two opposing forces


Internal Conflict:
Man vs. self


External Conflict:
Man vs. Man


Man vs. Nature


Man vs. Society
Irony
Irony applies to situations where there is a gap or disconnect between what is expected and what actually happens.
Verbal Irony:
The use of words to express something other than (and especially the opposite of) the literal meaning.
Situational Irony:
The difference between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
Dramatic Irony:
When the audience knows something that the characters do not. This can be used to add humor or suspense.
Figurative Language
Authors use figurative language to create fresh and original descriptions. Figurative expressions, while not literally true, help readers picture ordinary things in new ways.
Simile:
A comparison between two unlike things using the words like or as.
Metaphor:
A stated or implied comparison between two relatively unlike things using a form of “to be.” The comparison is not announced by “like or as.”
Hyperbole:
An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point.
Personification:
A figure of speech which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea. It is a comparison which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it.
Tone vs. Mood
Tone:
a literary technique that is a part of composition, which encompasses the authors attitude toward the subject.

Mood:
the way the reader feels when reading a story.
Protagonist vs. Antagonist
the central character in a literary work .
the character who actively opposes the protagonist .
Connotation vs. Denotation
A word's
denotation
is its literal definition.
For example:
Snake: a limbless reptile with a long, scaly body

A word's
connotation
is all the association we have with it.
For example:
"snake in the grass," the biblical serpent, the danger of poisonous snakes, our own fear of snakes, or a malevolent (evil, bad) person might be called "a real snake"

Connotation
can depend on the person who hears the word and relates his or her own associations.

•A plumber might immediately think of a plumbing tool called a snake.

•A biologist might think of the rare Indigo Snake he felt lucky to see the past weekend.
The following terms, devices, and definitions should all be review for you. We are going over these quickly to get your brain back into "school mode". This prezi is also on my Weebly. If you miss any notes, please go back and complete your handout. It is expected that theses terms and devices will become a part of your vocabulary. They should be included in your writing when discussing a piece of literature as well as during our class discussions.
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