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Voyages in English

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Erin Walsh

on 24 October 2017

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Transcript of Voyages in English

4.4 Transitive Verbs
4.1 Principle Parts of Verbs & Verb Phrases
I. Verbs show action or being.
II. The four basic parts of all verbs are:
Present
(base form of the verb)
Past
(base form + ed)
Past participle
(helping verb + ed)
Present Participle
(helping verb + ing)
III. A verb phrase is 2 or more verbs working together as a unit
A verb phrase can have more than one auxiliary (helping) verb + a main verb.
Common auxiliary verbs include:
Forms of be (is, am, are, was, were)
Forms of have (has, have, had)
Forms of do (do, did)
Can, may, must, might, could, should, would, will

4.2 Regular & Irregular Verbs
Regular Verbs

4.3 Troublesome Verbs
4.9 Perfect Tenses
Transitive verbs
express an action that passes from a doer to a receiver. Every transitive verb
has a direct object
.
Ex. Amelia Earhart bought her first plane in 1922.
Subject – Amelia Earhart
Transitive Verb – bought
Direct Object – plane

4.6 Linking Verbs
I. A linking verb links the subject of a sentence with a subject compliment (PA or PN).

II. Linking verbs include:
is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, could have, should have, would have, can, may, must, might
, all forms of
be, being, and been
. Other linking verbs include:
appear, become, continue, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, sell, sound,
and
taste.
Ex. Alan Shepard
became
an astronaut.
Ex. The job
was
dangerous.
Ex. People
felt
excited about the possibility of space travel.

I. The
perfect tenses
are formed using the
past participle
of the verb
(has, have, had + -ed).
II. The
present perfect tense
tells about an action that happened at some indefinite point in the past or an action that started in the past and continues into the present time. This tense uses
have, has
for helping verbs.
Ex. Scientists
have called
asteroids minor planets.
III. The
past perfect tense
tells about a past action that was completed before another past action started. This tense uses
had
for a helping verb.
Ex. I
had read
a lot about asteroids before I went to the planetarium.

4.10 Agreement of Subject & Verb
I. A verb agrees with its subject in person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and number (sing./pl.)
II. For 3rd person singular subject, the present tense is the base form with –s or –es added.
Is
is the 3rd person singular form of the verb
be
.
Ex. A sixth-grade
student
usually
studies
about space.
Ex.
Students

learn
about meteors, asteroids, and comets.
Ex. Space
travel

is
an interesting topic.
III. Use
doesn’t
when the subject is 3rd person singular. Use
don’t
in other cases.
Ex.
Arnold

doesn’t
know what a comet is.
Ex.
I

don’t
know what a comet is either.
IV. Use
are
and
were
with
you
, whether the subject is singular or plural.
Do not use is or was with the subject you.
Ex.
Were

you
at the planetarium yesterday?
V. Compound subjects connected by and usually require plural verbs.
Ex.
Janice and Marie
are working
on a report on asteroids.

4.8 Progressive Tenses
I. The
progressive tenses
are formed using the
present participle
of the verb (is, am, are, was, were + -ing).
II. The
present progressive tense
tells about something that is happening right now. This tense uses
am, is, are
as the helping verbs.
Ex. The students
are asking
the scientist a question.
III. The
past progressive tense
tells about something that was happening in the past. This tense uses
was, were
as the helping verbs.
Ex. While she
was answering
, we
were taking
notes.
IV. The
future progressive tense
tells about something that will be happening in the future. This tense uses
will be
or
is/are going to be
as the helping verbs.
Ex. We
will be looking
for meteors tomorrow night.
Ex. We
are going to be lying
on blankets in the backyard.

Voyages in English
Section 4:
VERBS

4.1 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Underline the verb or verb phrase and tell principal part of the verb.

1. We all know the story of Christopher Columbus.
2. People in the United States even celebrate a holiday in his honor.
3. Columbus went to sea at age 14.
4. People have praised Columbus as an explorer.
5. He has been called a single-minded entrepreneur by others.
6. He was looking for a short route to the Far East.



Ex. We
have studied
about Columbus in class.
Auxiliary verb
– have
Main verb
– studied

Irregular Verbs

Principle Parts of a Verb
4.2 Try For Practice
Write these words in your notebook. Write the past and past participle forms of each verb.

1. sink
2. freeze
3. see
4. want
5. eat
6. cut
7. give
8. study
9. sing
10. decide

4.3 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Choose the correct
verb to complete each sentence.

1. (Leave Let) me tell you about Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan.
2. He (left let) his name in history for a strange reason.
3. After his first flight at age 18 in 1925, he pestered people at the airfield to (learn teach) him to fly.
4. After Charles Lindberg’s flight across the Atlantic in 1927, Douglas (lay laid) plans for his own trip.
5. Douglas worked to (rise raise) money for a plane.

4.4 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Highlight the transitive
verb and label the subject and direct object in each sentence.

1. Amelia Earhart joined two pilots as a passenger on the transatlantic flight in 1928.
2. On May 20, 1932, she flew a plane across the Atlantic alone.
3. She set a transatlantic record on 14 hours, 56 minutes.
4. President Hoover presented a medal to her for this feat.
5. Earhart also completed a flight from Hawaii to California.

4.5 Intransitive Verbs
Intransitive verbs
are action verbs that have no receivers of their action—
no direct objects.
The intransitive verb may be followed by a prepositional phrase or an adverb.
Ex. Bessie Colman came from Texas.
- Followed by a prep. Phrase
Ex. Bessie worked diligently.
- followed by an adverb.

4.5 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the
intransitive verb, tell whether it is followed by a prepositional phrase or an adverb.

1. As a child in the early 1900s, Bessie Colman lived in Texas.
2. As a girl, Bessie helped with the care of her younger brothers and sisters.
3. As a young adult, she moved to Chicago.
4. Like many other African Americans, Colman’s family was hoping for a better life in the North.
5. Colman worked as a manicurist in the city.

4.6 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Label each
linking verb and the subject compliment in each sentence.

1. John Glenn was an engineering student in college.
2. His interest in flying became strong.
3. He was the first person to fly at supersonic speed.
4. It was he who joined the group of seven original astronauts.
5. He became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962.

4.7 Simple Tenses
I. Tense expresses the time of the action or state of being.
II. The
simple present tense
tells about an action that happens again and again and about things that are general truths.
-
Simple present tense uses the present form of the verb
.
Ex. Meteor
showers
occur at certain times of the year.
III.
Simple future tense
tells about an action that will happen in the future.
-
Simple future tense uses the auxiliary verb will or be going to + the present form of the verb.
Ex. Another meteor shower
will occur
next month.
Ex. My family and I
are going to watch
for it.
IV.
Simple past tense
tells about an action that happened in the past.
-
Simple past tense uses the past form of the verb.

Ex. Jan and Greg
saw
a meteor shower in November.

4.7 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the verb
in each sentence and tell its simple tense.

1. A meteor appears briefly in the sky as a streak of light.
2. These pieces of stony or metallic material from outer space usually burn on contact with Earth’s atmosphere.
3. Materials like those in meteorites formed the planets.
4. Meteorites will provide scientist with clues on the composition of planets and the formation of the solar system.
5. One big meteor hit the ground about 50,000 years ago.

4.8 Try for Practice
Write a sentence for each verb. Use the verb tense indicated in parentheses.
1. eat (present progressive)
2. walk (past progressive)
3. sing (future progressive)
4. comb (past progressive)
5. twirl (present progressive)
6. write (future progressive)

4.9 Try for Practice
Write a sentence for each verb. Use the
tense indicated in parentheses.
1. appear (present perfect)
2. order (past perfect)
3. gain (past perfect)
4. lay (present perfect)
5. finish (past perfect)
6. study (present perfect)

4.10 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Highlight the
subject of the sentence and label it singular or plural. Then choose the correct verb.

1. Scientists (studies study) objects in space.
2. The word meteorite (describes describe) any space material that strikes Earth.
3. Sometimes a meteor (hits hit) Earth.
4. It (doesn’t don’t) disintegrate in the atmosphere.
5. That meteor (become becomes) a meteorite.

4.11 Active & Passive Voice
4.11 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the verb or verb phrase in each sentence and tell whether it is in the active voice or the passive voice.

1. The goal of a moon landing was set by President Kennedy.
2. He set 1970 as the date for the landing.
3. On July20, 1969, a person walked on the moon.
4. Kennedy’s goal was reached.
5. Three astronauts—Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong—traveled in the spaceship Columbia.

I.
Voice
show whether the subject is the doer or the receiver of the action.
II. A verb is in the
active voice when the subject is the doer
of the action.
Ex. An astronaut
placed
the flag on the moon.
III. A verb is in the
passive voice when the subject is the receiver
of the action. Passive voice is formed by using a form of be + the past participle.
Ex. The flag
was placed
on the moon by an astronaut.
Ex. The moon rock
is shown
at the museum.
Ex. The samples
were collected
by astronauts.

4.12 Indicative Mood
I. Mood shows the manner in which the action or state of being is expressed.
II. The indicative mood of the verb is used when the speaker is making a statement or asking a question. (Most sentences are in the indicative mood.)
III. Sentences in the indicative mood use verbs in the simple, progressive, and perfect tenses. They also reflect active and passive voice.


Examples:
Ex. What are the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World?
(question—simple present)
Ex. The Great Pyramid, on Wonder of the Ancient World, is still standing. (statement—present progressive)
Ex. I have read books about each of the Seven Wonders.
(statement—present perfect)
Ex. Did you study about the Seven Ancient Wonders last year?
(question—simple past)
Ex. The original list of seven Ancient Wonders was compiled in the second century BC. (statement—simple past passive)
Ex. Had you planned to do a report on the Seven Ancient Wonders? (question—past perfect)
Ex. I will research the Seven Wonders.
(statement—simple future)
4.12 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Underline the verb in the indicative mood and tell its tense and voice.

1. Do you know the age of the Great Pyramid?
2. It was constructed about 4,000 years ago as a tomb for the pharaoh Khufu.
3. It has stood in the desert all this time.
4. For centuries Egyptians had buried their rulers in elaborate tombs.
5. Did the ancient Egyptians believe in an afterlife?

4.13 Emphatic Mood
I. The
emphatic mood
is the form of a verb that
gives special force
to a
simple present or simple past tense verb
.
Ex. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
do fascinate
me.
Ex. I
did read
a lot about one the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
Ex. The structure
does continue
to stimulate the imagination.
II. Do not confuse this use with do, does, did used as auxiliary verbs in questions or negative sentences.
Ex. What
do
you
know
about Alexander the Great?
(Do acts as an auxiliary verb in a question.)
Ex. I
didn’t know
the answer to the question.
(Did acts as an auxiliary verb in a negative sentence with not.)

4.13 Try for Practice
Rewrite each sentence to change the italicized verb to the emphatic mood.

1. I
find
the Lighthouse of Alexandria a remarkable building.
2. Its structure somewhat
resembled
today’s skyscrapers.
3. It
stood
higher than any other human-made structures of the time except for the Egyptian pyramids.
4. Today’s engineers
find
its design very clever.
5. Its designer, Sostrates of Knidos, truly
deserves
recognition as one of the greatest engineers of all time.

4.14 Imperative Mood
I. The
imperative mood
is used to
express a command
or a request.
II. The imperative mood is formed using the
present form of the verb
and the
subject is usually “you” understood
.

Ex.
Tell
me about the Seven Wonders of the World.
Ex.
Describe
the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
Ex. Please
lend
me your book on the Seven Wonders.

4.14 Try for Practice
Rewrite the following sentences in the imperative mood.

1. You need to decide on a topic for your report.
2. It is a good idea to write questions about the topic.
3. You should try to answer the questions in your report.
4. You need to do some research for you report.
5. You might look for information at the library.

4.15 Subjunctive Mood
I. The
subjunctive mood
is used in several ways:
-To express a wish or desire
Ex. I wish I
were able
to go to the lecture with you.
-To express a command, request, or suggestion following the word “that”
Ex. He requested
that
they
be
on time for the lecture.
-To express something that is contrary to fact (not true)
Ex. If I
were
you, I
would leave
by 7:30.

4.15 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the subjunctive verb or verb phrase in each sentence and tell what it expresses: a wish; command, request, suggestion; or something contrary to fact.

1. If you were in my class, you’d have to write a report on the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
2. My teacher suggested that my topic be the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.
3. The widow of King Mausolus insisted that her husband be buried in a magnificent tomb.
4. She demanded that all the materials in the tomb be the very best.
5. If the memorial were not so beautiful, the Mausoleum wouldn’t have been named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

4.16 Modal Auxiliaries
I.
Modal auxiliaries
are used to express possibility, permission, ability, necessity, obligation, intention, and willingness. They are followed by main verbs that are in the base form.
- Possibility: You
might want
information on the Wonders of the Modern World. We
could look
on the internet for information.
- Permission: Anyone who wants
may use
the computer in the classroom.
- Ability: June
can find
just about anything on the internet.
- Necessity: We
must finish
the proposal for our project today.
- Obligation: We
should help
June with the research for our project.
- Intention: I
will bring
all my notes to study hall.
- Willingness:
Would
you
help
us with the report? I
would gladly
do the artwork for you.
II. Common modal auxiliaries are: may, might, can, could, must, should, will, would

4.16 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Underline the modal auxiliary and main verb in the sentence then tell whether the verb phrase expresses possibility, permission, ability, necessity, obligation, intention, or willingness.

1. I can name some of the Wonders of the Modern World.
2. Lists of Modern wonders might include the Chunnel (English Channel Tunnel).
3. Every list should include the Dubai Tower—the world’s tallest freestanding structure.
4. Would you get information on the Taipei 101 building in Taiwan?
5. We will combine our notes for a report.
6. We must complete the work this week.
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