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Voyages in English
Transcript of Voyages in English
4.1 Principle Parts of Verbs & Verb Phrases
I. Verbs show action or being.
II. The four basic parts of all verbs are:
(base form of the verb)
(base form + ed)
(helping verb + ed)
(helping verb + ing)
III. A verb phrase is 2 or more verbs working together as a unit
A verb phrase can have more than one auxiliary (helping) verb + a main verb.
Common auxiliary verbs include:
Forms of be (is, am, are, was, were)
Forms of have (has, have, had)
Forms of do (do, did)
Can, may, must, might, could, should, would, will
4.2 Regular & Irregular Verbs
4.3 Troublesome Verbs
4.9 Perfect Tenses
express an action that passes from a doer to a receiver. Every transitive verb
has a direct object
Ex. Amelia Earhart bought her first plane in 1922.
Subject – Amelia Earhart
Transitive Verb – bought
Direct Object – plane
4.6 Linking Verbs
I. A linking verb links the subject of a sentence with a subject compliment (PA or PN).
II. Linking verbs include:
is, am, are, was, were, has, have, had, could have, should have, would have, can, may, must, might
, all forms of
be, being, and been
. Other linking verbs include:
appear, become, continue, feel, grow, look, remain, seem, sell, sound,
Ex. Alan Shepard
Ex. The job
excited about the possibility of space travel.
are formed using the
of the verb
(has, have, had + -ed).
present perfect tense
tells about an action that happened at some indefinite point in the past or an action that started in the past and continues into the present time. This tense uses
for helping verbs.
asteroids minor planets.
past perfect tense
tells about a past action that was completed before another past action started. This tense uses
for a helping verb.
a lot about asteroids before I went to the planetarium.
4.10 Agreement of Subject & Verb
I. A verb agrees with its subject in person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and number (sing./pl.)
II. For 3rd person singular subject, the present tense is the base form with –s or –es added.
is the 3rd person singular form of the verb
Ex. A sixth-grade
about meteors, asteroids, and comets.
an interesting topic.
when the subject is 3rd person singular. Use
in other cases.
know what a comet is.
know what a comet is either.
, whether the subject is singular or plural.
Do not use is or was with the subject you.
at the planetarium yesterday?
V. Compound subjects connected by and usually require plural verbs.
Janice and Marie
on a report on asteroids.
4.8 Progressive Tenses
are formed using the
of the verb (is, am, are, was, were + -ing).
present progressive tense
tells about something that is happening right now. This tense uses
am, is, are
as the helping verbs.
Ex. The students
the scientist a question.
past progressive tense
tells about something that was happening in the past. This tense uses
as the helping verbs.
Ex. While she
future progressive tense
tells about something that will be happening in the future. This tense uses
is/are going to be
as the helping verbs.
will be looking
for meteors tomorrow night.
are going to be lying
on blankets in the backyard.
Voyages in English
4.1 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Underline the verb or verb phrase and tell principal part of the verb.
1. We all know the story of Christopher Columbus.
2. People in the United States even celebrate a holiday in his honor.
3. Columbus went to sea at age 14.
4. People have praised Columbus as an explorer.
5. He has been called a single-minded entrepreneur by others.
6. He was looking for a short route to the Far East.
about Columbus in class.
Principle Parts of a Verb
4.2 Try For Practice
Write these words in your notebook. Write the past and past participle forms of each verb.
4.3 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Choose the correct
verb to complete each sentence.
1. (Leave Let) me tell you about Douglas “Wrong Way” Corrigan.
2. He (left let) his name in history for a strange reason.
3. After his first flight at age 18 in 1925, he pestered people at the airfield to (learn teach) him to fly.
4. After Charles Lindberg’s flight across the Atlantic in 1927, Douglas (lay laid) plans for his own trip.
5. Douglas worked to (rise raise) money for a plane.
4.4 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Highlight the transitive
verb and label the subject and direct object in each sentence.
1. Amelia Earhart joined two pilots as a passenger on the transatlantic flight in 1928.
2. On May 20, 1932, she flew a plane across the Atlantic alone.
3. She set a transatlantic record on 14 hours, 56 minutes.
4. President Hoover presented a medal to her for this feat.
5. Earhart also completed a flight from Hawaii to California.
4.5 Intransitive Verbs
are action verbs that have no receivers of their action—
no direct objects.
The intransitive verb may be followed by a prepositional phrase or an adverb.
Ex. Bessie Colman came from Texas.
- Followed by a prep. Phrase
Ex. Bessie worked diligently.
- followed by an adverb.
4.5 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the
intransitive verb, tell whether it is followed by a prepositional phrase or an adverb.
1. As a child in the early 1900s, Bessie Colman lived in Texas.
2. As a girl, Bessie helped with the care of her younger brothers and sisters.
3. As a young adult, she moved to Chicago.
4. Like many other African Americans, Colman’s family was hoping for a better life in the North.
5. Colman worked as a manicurist in the city.
4.6 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Label each
linking verb and the subject compliment in each sentence.
1. John Glenn was an engineering student in college.
2. His interest in flying became strong.
3. He was the first person to fly at supersonic speed.
4. It was he who joined the group of seven original astronauts.
5. He became the first American to orbit Earth in 1962.
4.7 Simple Tenses
I. Tense expresses the time of the action or state of being.
simple present tense
tells about an action that happens again and again and about things that are general truths.
Simple present tense uses the present form of the verb
occur at certain times of the year.
Simple future tense
tells about an action that will happen in the future.
Simple future tense uses the auxiliary verb will or be going to + the present form of the verb.
Ex. Another meteor shower
Ex. My family and I
are going to watch
Simple past tense
tells about an action that happened in the past.
Simple past tense uses the past form of the verb.
Ex. Jan and Greg
a meteor shower in November.
4.7 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the verb
in each sentence and tell its simple tense.
1. A meteor appears briefly in the sky as a streak of light.
2. These pieces of stony or metallic material from outer space usually burn on contact with Earth’s atmosphere.
3. Materials like those in meteorites formed the planets.
4. Meteorites will provide scientist with clues on the composition of planets and the formation of the solar system.
5. One big meteor hit the ground about 50,000 years ago.
4.8 Try for Practice
Write a sentence for each verb. Use the verb tense indicated in parentheses.
1. eat (present progressive)
2. walk (past progressive)
3. sing (future progressive)
4. comb (past progressive)
5. twirl (present progressive)
6. write (future progressive)
4.9 Try for Practice
Write a sentence for each verb. Use the
tense indicated in parentheses.
1. appear (present perfect)
2. order (past perfect)
3. gain (past perfect)
4. lay (present perfect)
5. finish (past perfect)
6. study (present perfect)
4.10 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Highlight the
subject of the sentence and label it singular or plural. Then choose the correct verb.
1. Scientists (studies study) objects in space.
2. The word meteorite (describes describe) any space material that strikes Earth.
3. Sometimes a meteor (hits hit) Earth.
4. It (doesn’t don’t) disintegrate in the atmosphere.
5. That meteor (become becomes) a meteorite.
4.11 Active & Passive Voice
4.11 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the verb or verb phrase in each sentence and tell whether it is in the active voice or the passive voice.
1. The goal of a moon landing was set by President Kennedy.
2. He set 1970 as the date for the landing.
3. On July20, 1969, a person walked on the moon.
4. Kennedy’s goal was reached.
5. Three astronauts—Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong—traveled in the spaceship Columbia.
show whether the subject is the doer or the receiver of the action.
II. A verb is in the
active voice when the subject is the doer
of the action.
Ex. An astronaut
the flag on the moon.
III. A verb is in the
passive voice when the subject is the receiver
of the action. Passive voice is formed by using a form of be + the past participle.
Ex. The flag
on the moon by an astronaut.
Ex. The moon rock
at the museum.
Ex. The samples
4.12 Indicative Mood
I. Mood shows the manner in which the action or state of being is expressed.
II. The indicative mood of the verb is used when the speaker is making a statement or asking a question. (Most sentences are in the indicative mood.)
III. Sentences in the indicative mood use verbs in the simple, progressive, and perfect tenses. They also reflect active and passive voice.
Ex. What are the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World?
Ex. The Great Pyramid, on Wonder of the Ancient World, is still standing. (statement—present progressive)
Ex. I have read books about each of the Seven Wonders.
Ex. Did you study about the Seven Ancient Wonders last year?
Ex. The original list of seven Ancient Wonders was compiled in the second century BC. (statement—simple past passive)
Ex. Had you planned to do a report on the Seven Ancient Wonders? (question—past perfect)
Ex. I will research the Seven Wonders.
4.12 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Underline the verb in the indicative mood and tell its tense and voice.
1. Do you know the age of the Great Pyramid?
2. It was constructed about 4,000 years ago as a tomb for the pharaoh Khufu.
3. It has stood in the desert all this time.
4. For centuries Egyptians had buried their rulers in elaborate tombs.
5. Did the ancient Egyptians believe in an afterlife?
4.13 Emphatic Mood
is the form of a verb that
gives special force
simple present or simple past tense verb
Ex. The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
a lot about one the Lighthouse of Alexandria.
Ex. The structure
to stimulate the imagination.
II. Do not confuse this use with do, does, did used as auxiliary verbs in questions or negative sentences.
about Alexander the Great?
(Do acts as an auxiliary verb in a question.)
the answer to the question.
(Did acts as an auxiliary verb in a negative sentence with not.)
4.13 Try for Practice
Rewrite each sentence to change the italicized verb to the emphatic mood.
the Lighthouse of Alexandria a remarkable building.
2. Its structure somewhat
higher than any other human-made structures of the time except for the Egyptian pyramids.
4. Today’s engineers
its design very clever.
5. Its designer, Sostrates of Knidos, truly
recognition as one of the greatest engineers of all time.
4.14 Imperative Mood
is used to
express a command
or a request.
II. The imperative mood is formed using the
present form of the verb
subject is usually “you” understood
me about the Seven Wonders of the World.
the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.
me your book on the Seven Wonders.
4.14 Try for Practice
Rewrite the following sentences in the imperative mood.
1. You need to decide on a topic for your report.
2. It is a good idea to write questions about the topic.
3. You should try to answer the questions in your report.
4. You need to do some research for you report.
5. You might look for information at the library.
4.15 Subjunctive Mood
is used in several ways:
-To express a wish or desire
Ex. I wish I
to go to the lecture with you.
-To express a command, request, or suggestion following the word “that”
Ex. He requested
on time for the lecture.
-To express something that is contrary to fact (not true)
Ex. If I
4.15 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Identify the subjunctive verb or verb phrase in each sentence and tell what it expresses: a wish; command, request, suggestion; or something contrary to fact.
1. If you were in my class, you’d have to write a report on the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
2. My teacher suggested that my topic be the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.
3. The widow of King Mausolus insisted that her husband be buried in a magnificent tomb.
4. She demanded that all the materials in the tomb be the very best.
5. If the memorial were not so beautiful, the Mausoleum wouldn’t have been named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
4.16 Modal Auxiliaries
are used to express possibility, permission, ability, necessity, obligation, intention, and willingness. They are followed by main verbs that are in the base form.
- Possibility: You
information on the Wonders of the Modern World. We
on the internet for information.
- Permission: Anyone who wants
the computer in the classroom.
- Ability: June
just about anything on the internet.
- Necessity: We
the proposal for our project today.
- Obligation: We
June with the research for our project.
- Intention: I
all my notes to study hall.
us with the report? I
do the artwork for you.
II. Common modal auxiliaries are: may, might, can, could, must, should, will, would
4.16 Try for Practice
Write these sentences in your notebook. Underline the modal auxiliary and main verb in the sentence then tell whether the verb phrase expresses possibility, permission, ability, necessity, obligation, intention, or willingness.
1. I can name some of the Wonders of the Modern World.
2. Lists of Modern wonders might include the Chunnel (English Channel Tunnel).
3. Every list should include the Dubai Tower—the world’s tallest freestanding structure.
4. Would you get information on the Taipei 101 building in Taiwan?
5. We will combine our notes for a report.
6. We must complete the work this week.