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6 Major Psychological Perspectives used today, review of scientific method, overview of Milgram experiment
Transcript of 6 Major Psychological Perspectives used today, review of scientific method, overview of Milgram experiment
Today, there is not one single perspective that is used more often than the others.
We will talk about the 6 major perspectives that we use today to explain human behavior.
1. Psychodynamic Perspective
Focus is on the unconscious mind and its influence over conscious behavior
Obsessive hand washing could be linked to a trauma in childhood that now causes this behavior
Nail-biting may be caused by an anxiety inducing childhood event
Hoarding behaviors could be a result of childhood trauma
Rituals of nervousness such as completing a task a certain number of times (such as opening and closing a cabinet) could be linked to a childhood situation
Any irrational behaviors can be blamed on childhood instances of trauma or development
Some examples of behaviors and their explanations using psychodynamic perspective
YouTube clip of OCD number counting
2. Behavioral Perspective:
Operant conditioning- behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are strengthened or reinforced.
Operant Conditioning Examples:
Emphasis on the human potential-the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be
Self-Actualization-achieving one's full potential or ideal self
*Basic needs must be met before anyone you can meet your full potential
5. Cognitive Perspective
Study of the how the mind processes information, how people think and how they remember, store and use information
Are you self-actualized?
6. Sociocultural Perspective
impact of specific social, ethnic, racial and religious groups on behavior.
3. Biopsychological Perspective:
* How we behave is based upon who we are with as well as the social norms, fads and class differences of the culture in which we live
behavior is the direct result of events in the body
*hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors and diseases are some biological causes of behavior
Psychology as a career:
1. Clinical Psychology- listen to people's problems and diagnose and treat psychological disorders (don't prescribe medicine)
2. Counseling psychologist- diagnoses and treat people with less severe problems
3. Experimental psychology-focus on research on performing experiments on humans and animals
4. Social psychology-studies how human behavior is affected by the presence of other people
5. Personality psychology-focuses on the difference in personalities among people
How do psychologists benefit society?
Clinical Psychologist: Doctorate Degree in Psychology (4 to 7 years of graduate school)
Industrial-Organizational Psychologist: Master's Degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school)
Forensic Psychologist: Master's Degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school); a doctoral degree is recommended.
Social Worker: Bachelor's Degree (4 to 5 years of undergraduate school)
Licensed Counselor: Master's Degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school)
School Psychologist: Varies by state (2 to 3 years of graduate school)
Health Psychologist: Doctorate Degree (4 to 5 years of graduate school)
Sports Psychologist: Master's Degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school)
School Psychologist: Master's degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school)
Social Psychologist: Doctoral Degree (5 to 7 years of graduate school)
Child Psychologist: Doctoral degree (5 to 7 years of graduate school)
Criminal Psychologist: Master's degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school); a doctoral degree is recommended.
The Scientific Method:
The scientific method is the way to determine facts and control the possibilities of error and bias when observing behaviors.
1. Formulating a question
2. Developing a hypothesis
-educated guess written in a statement that can be tested
3. Testing the hypothesis-
experiment and gather data
4. Drawing conclusions-
5. Reporting results-
write up exactly what you did, why you did it, how you did it, and what you found
*According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics, the demand for clinical psychologist is expected to increase because of the rising healthcare costs associated with unhealthy lifestyles-smoking, drinking, obesity
1. Beaker experiment-class
2. Pencil experiment
Research Claim Activity:
1. Design a hypothetical experiment to test these research claims
Experiment- the only research method that allows researchers to determine the cause of the behavior
Independent and dependent variables:
independent variable- presence of caffeine
dependent variable-measure of hyperactivity in students
(this depends on whether or not students were exposed to independent variable or caffeine).
Experiment: You want to to perform an experiment that tests how sugar affects the hyperactivity of students after lunch
Different ways to study behavior?
Naturalistic observation-observing humans or behaviors in the natural environment
observer effect- tendency of people or animals to behave differently than normal when they know they are being watched
observer bias- tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
laboratory method-conducting research in a controlled environment
case study-study on one individual in great detail
survey method-conducting research in the form of interviews
Why study animals?
Animals typically live shorter lives so looking at long term effects is easier
Easier to control-can be on diets, controlled living arrangements etc.
Animals engage in simpler
behavior than humans do so it is easier to see the effects of manipulation
Researchers can perform research on animals that could never be performed on humans
For example-It took a long time for scientists to prove that harmful substances in tobacco caused cancer in humans. However, researchers could perform experiments on animals
Without animal testing there would be no vaccines for deadly diseases, no insulin treatments for diabetics and less know about transplants.
BUT IS IT ETHICAL?
people that volunteer for a study can expect that no physical or psychological harm will come to them
4. Respect for peoples and their dignity
Stanley Milgram and the Obedience Experiment
3. Justification-Deception must be justified.
4. Right to Withdraw
5. Risks and Benefits
6. Debriefing-investigators must tell the true nature of the study and expectations of the result
7. Confidentiality- Data must remain confidentiality (no person can be recognize from the study)
If a person in a position of authority ordered you to deliver a 400-volt electrical shock to another person, would you follow orders?
Milgram started his experiments in 1961 shortly after the trial of a Nazi war criminal that claimed that he was simply "following orders"
Milgram began to question the OBEDIENCE OF AUTHORITY
Milgram recruited 40 men using a newspaper ad.
Milgram developed an intimidating shock generator, with shock levels starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way up to 450 volts. The many switches were labeled with terms including "slight shock," "moderate shock" and "danger: severe shock." The final two switches were labeled simply with an ominous "XXX."
These three people fill three distinct roles:
1. Experimenter (an authoritative role)
2. Teacher (a role intended to obey the orders of the Experimenter),
3. Learner (the recipient of stimulus from the Teacher). THE LEARNER WAS ALWAYS AN ACTOR
The "teacher" was then given a list of word pairs which he was to teach the learner.
The teacher began by reading the list of word pairs to the learner.
The teacher would then read the first word of each pair and read four possible answers. The learner would press a button to indicate his response.
If the answer was incorrect, the teacher would administer a shock to the learner, with the voltage increasing in 15-volt increments for each wrong answer.
If correct, the teacher would read the next word pair.
The subjects believed that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual shocks. In reality, there were no shocks
If at any time the subject indicated his desire to halt the experiment, he was given a succession of verbal prods by the experimenter, in this order:
The experiment requires that you continue.
It is absolutely essential that you continue.
You have no other choice, you must go on.
If the subject still wished to stop after all four successive verbal prods, the experiment was halted. Otherwise, it was halted after the subject had given the maximum 450-volt shock three times in succession
6 major theories about what humans are and how we develop have arisen.
*We have already covered psychoanalysis and behaviorism
There are 6 major perspectives in psychology. Individually, you are going to make a small poster about one of the perspectives:
You will need to include the following on your poster
. Title and definition of your psychological perspective
. How your perspective explains humans and their behavior
. Advantages and disadvantages of the approach written in your own words
Your perspective applied to this scenario:
Joe is a high school student. He has been absent a lot lately. There is some concern among his teachers that he may drop out. Why is Joe missing so much school?
How your mind handles problems or develops personality traits
Please refer to your rubric to make sure you are meeting all of the this project's criteria.
Advantages: it analyzes how thoughts affect behavior
Disadvantages: It downplays the role of emotions
Advantages: analyzes the unconscious
Disadvantages: focus on how behavior is the product of negative unconscious thoughts/impulses
*impulse: influence of a feeling
Behavior is the product of learning and associations
Advantages: can help parents teach children appropriate behavior
Disadvantages: focus on how behavior only comes from experience
Advantages: helps someone understand how biology affects behavior can make treating patients easier sometimes
Disadvantages: Does not explain social influences on behavior
people are basically good and capable of helping themselves-as long as their basic needs are met
Advantages: Gives people the power over their lives and behavior
Disadvantages: Does not consider the unconscious part of the mind. Also, it assumes that everyone is striving to be good.
Advantages: helps psychologists to counsel people from different cultures and to understand social influences on behavior
Disadvantages: Does not consider biological influences on behavior
4. Humanistic Perspective:
Careers in psychology
Psychology Free Write-
I am going to give you 10 minutes to respond to the prompt above in your notebooks. This is a free-write so grammar and punctuation are not going to be graded. Instead, I want your focus to be on writing for the full 10 minutes.
1. What is the scientific method?
2. In what classes did you learn
about the scientific method?
3. What is the relationship between the scientific method and psychology?
It's time to for you practice the scientific method!
You will need:
1. A partner
2. A plastic bag
3. A cup of water
4. A sharpened pencil