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Nomenclature

by

Benjamin Zion

on 21 August 2016

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Transcript of Nomenclature

Nomenclature
Ionic Compounds
Covalent Compounds
Acids
3 Types
Metal-Nonmetal
Metal-Polyatomic Ion
Transition Metal-Anion
1 Type
3 Types
=>Binary Ionic Bonds
Name the metal, the name the nonmetal, dropping the ending and adding "-ide"
NaCl - Sodium Chloride (Na+ Sodium; Cl- Chlorine -ine +ide)
LiF- Lithium Fluoride (Li+ Lithium; F- Fluorine -ine + ide)
K2O - Potassium Oxide (K+ Potassium; O2- Oxygen -ygen +ide)
BaI2 –Barium Iodide (Ba2+ Barium; I- Iodine -ine +ide)

Note that because we know the charges of the potassium, oxide, barium and iodide ions, we do not indicate the number of atoms in the compound’s name.
=>Ionic Bonds with a Polyatomic Ion
Name the metal, the name the Polyatomic Ion (memorize these!)
KNO3 Potassium Nitrate (K+ Potassium; NO3 - Nitrate)
NaClO Sodium Hypochlorite (Na+ Sodium; ClO- Hypochlorite)
Ba(OH)2 Barium Hydroxide (Ba2+ Barium; OH- Hydroxide)
=>Binary Ionic Bonds
Name the transition metal with its oxidation state in roman numerals in parenthesis and then the anion.
Co(NO3)3- Cobalt (III) Nitrate
FeO- Iron (II) Oxide
NiCl2- Nickel (II) Chloride
=> Covalent Bonds
1:Mono-
2:Di-
3:Tri-
4:Tetra-
5:Penta-
6:Hexa-
7:Hepta-
8:Octa-
9:Nona-
10:Deca-
Use Prefixes!
Name both elements but add a prefix to indicate how many of each ion are present.* Drop the end of the second one and add "-ide."
*if there is only one of the first element,don't use "mono", just state the name.
N2O4- Dinitrogen tetroxide
Br6I2- Hexabromine di-iodide
PS5- Phosphorous pentasulfide
Nonmetal-Nonmetal
Hydrogen with"ate" Polyatomic ions
Hydrogen with"ite" Polyatomic ions
Hydrogen with Nonmetals
=>Follow the skeleton
=>Follow the skeleton
=>Follow the skeleton
"Hydro_____ic acid"
Remove the end of the nonmetal attatched to hydrogen and write into the blank
HF- Hydrofluoric Acid
HCl- Hydrochloric Acid
Remove the end of the Polyatomic-ion attatched to hydrogen and write into the blank if it ends in "ate"
HNO3- Nitric Acid
H2CO3- Carbonic Acid
H2SO4- Sulfuric Acid
"_____ic acid"
"_____ous acid"
Remove the end of the Polyatomic-ion attatched to hydrogen and write into the blank if it ends in "ite"
HNO2- Nitrous Acid
HClO2- Chlorous Acid
H2SO3- Sulfurous Acid
Oxo anions:
Prefix Suffix Example
per ate ClO4 - perchlorate
ate ClO3 - chlorate
ite ClO2 - chlorite
hypo ite ClO - hypochlorite
Increasing Oxygen
Older system: often uses latin names, add suffix
lower charge (oxidation state) = ous ("the o is low"
higher charge (oxidation state) = ic ("the I is high")

FeCl2 - ferrous chloride
FeCl3 - ferric chloride

Tin (II) oxide - stannous oxide - SnO
Tin (IV) oxide - stannic oxide - SnO2
With multiple polyatomic ions in a single compound, the entire ion formula is put in parenthesis. Again, the number of ions in the compound is not reflected in the name.
What Order?
What's the order of the elements in a binary covalent compound?
Look at the non-metals of the periodic table. Starting at the furthest left with B, continue with the non-metals in the column to the right working from the bottom to the top. Continue until you reach fluorine.
*Exceptions; Hydrogen comes after Nitrogen; Oxygen is second to last (only F will be after it).
** More exceptions; H2O is always called Water; NH3 is called Ammonia.
B, Si, C, Sb, As, P, N, H, Te, Se, S, I, Br, Cl, O, F
Old system names you need to know:
Fe 2+ = Iron(II) = ferrous ion FeO = ferrous oxide
Fe 3+ = Iron(III) = ferric ion Fe2O3 = ferric oxide

Cu+ = Copper(I) = cuprous ion Cu2O = cuprous oxide
Cu2+ = Copper(II) = cupric ion CuO = cupric oxide

Sn2+ = Tin(II) = stannous ion SnO = stannous oxide
Sn4+ = Tin(IV) = stannic ion SnCl4 = stannic chloride

Pb2+ = Lead(II) = plumbous ion PbO = plumbous oxide
Pb4+ = Lead(IV) = plumbic ion PbO2 = plumbic oxide

*Hg2 2+ = Mercury(I) = mercurous ion Hg2Cl2 = mercurous chloride
Hg 2+ = Mercury(II) = mercuric ion HgCl2 = mercuric chloride

*Mercury(I) exists as a diatomic ion with a +2 charge.
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