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Copy of Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
Transcript of Copy of Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
What are the 3 major parts of an atom?
Put elements in rows by increasing atomic weight.
Put elements in columns by the way they reacted.
Father of the Table
Mendeleev wasn’t too far off.
Now the elements are put in rows by increasing ATOMIC NUMBER!!
The Current Periodic Table
They have the same number of valence electrons.
They will form the same kinds of ions.
How is the Periodic Table Useful?
1st column on the periodic table (Group 1) not including hydrogen.
Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt).
Soft enough to cut with a butter knife
Second column on the periodic table. (Group 2)
Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature.
Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca
Alkaline Earth Metals
Elements in groups 3-12
Less reactive harder metals
Includes metals used in jewelry and construction.
Metals used “as metal.”
Elements in group 14
Contains elements important to life and computers.
Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry.
Elements in group 15
Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things.
Elements in group 16
Oxygen is necessary for respiration.
Many things that stink, contain sulfur
Oxygen Family or Chalcogens
Elements in group 17
Very reactive, volatile, diatomic, nonmetals
Always found combined with other element in nature .
Used as disinfectants and to strengthen teeth.
Elements in group 18
VERY unreactive, monatomic gases
Used in lighted “neon” signs
The Noble Gases
Atomic Theory Development
Dalton's Atomic Theory
Dalton thought that atoms were smooth, hard balls.
Thomson suggested that atoms had negatively charged
electrons set in a positive sphere.
Each electron is represented by the symbol e−.
Rutherford was surprised that a few particles were deflected strongly.
According to Rutherford’s model, an atom was mostly open space.
Niels Bohr suggested that electrons move in specific orbits around the nucleus of an atom.
Electrons move rapidly in different directions around the nucleus.
Modern Model of Atom
At center is a tiny, dense nucleus containing protons and neutrons. Surrounding the nucleus is a cloudlike region moving electrons.
Number of protons in the nucleus
Periodic Table Information
Same as the # of protons
From left to right the PROPERTIES change in a predictable pattern
How is the Periodic Table Useful?
Groups has similar
Arrangement of elements showing a repeating pattern of their properties
Lesson 3: Classification of
ability to transfer heat
ability to transfer electricity
Lanthanides and Actinides
Two rows placed below main part of periodic table
Top row = lanthanides
Botton row = Actinides
Properties of Nonmetals
Nonmetals usually gain electrons when the react
Have some properties of metals AND nonmetals
conduct current in certain conditions
Alone in upper left
Friday Fun Day Bell Work:
1. What a dog does to a bone?
2. What doctors do to patients?
3. What you do with a wrinkled shirt?
4. Another name for a policeman?
5. Name of a goofy con?
2. Curium, Helium, Barium
Made up of two atoms.
Paper Cutting Activity
Cathode Ray Tube
Explain how Mendeleev discovered the pattern that lead to the periodic table.
Identify the data about elements found in the periodic table.
Explain how the periodic table is useful.
Lesson 2: Organizing the Elements Objectives
Minute to Win It?
Examine the periodic table on Pg. 102-103. Discuss with a partner any observations or trends that you see on the table.
...of your given element
Lesson 3: Metals Objectives
Summarize the properties of metals.
Describe how metals are classified in the periodic table.
Identify the number of
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
for the following elements:
Elements and the Periodic Table
How would YOU sort out this mess?
Lesson 1: Introduction to Atoms
Describe how atomic theory developed.
Describe the modern model of the atom.
Nonmetals and Metalloids
Summarize the properties of nonmetals.
Describe the families that contain nonmetals.
Finding Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons
*Also include the definition (in your own words) of your word
Your Turn: Pg. 116