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Progressive Era:Segregation and Discrimination
Transcript of Progressive Era:Segregation and Discrimination
The government is ran by political parties such the Democrats and the Republicans....Later the Populist party (People's party) was formed.
Democrats were viewed as the party of personal liberties and strong policies.
Republicans were viewed as the party of morality (moral) and social reforms.
Ulysses S. Grant 1869
Rutherford B.Hayes 1877
James A. Garfield 1881
Chester A. Arthur 1881
Grover Cleveland 1885
Benjamin Harrison 1893
William McKinley 1897
Theodore Roosevelt 1901
Jim Crow laws were laws that required blacks to be segregated (separated) from whites in public facilites
Plessy v. Ferguson
A Supreme court case that made segregation legal "separate but equal"considered the constitutionality of a Louisiana law passed in 1890 "providing for separate railway carriages for the white and colored races."
The law, which required that all passenger railways provide separate cars for blacks and whites, stipulated that the cars be equal in facilities, banned whites from sitting in black cars and blacks in white cars (with exception to "nurses attending children of the other race"), and penalized passengers or railway employees for violating its terms.
execution without proper court case
a tax that had to be paid before a person could vote
a reading test that people had to take before voting
Booker T. Washington was an early civil rights leader and the head of Tuskegee Institute. He believed in education self-reliance, and practical skills as a way for blacks to succeed in a white society.
W.E.B Du Bois was an early civil rights leader who wanted racial equality right away and who started two organizations to help African Americans: the Niagara Movement and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He wanted a more direct approach and more aggressive action toward racial equality. Also, he was a strong advocate for education. He was the first Black person to graduate from Harvard with a PH.D.
Atlanta Compromise was a speech given by Booker T. Washington that encouraged blacks to work hard, be patient and wait on equality. Atlanta Compromise stated that blacks should take the jobs available to them, and educate themselves.
Civil Rights during the late 1800s. Early Civil leaders such W.E.B Du Bois created organization to help combat racial
George Washington Carver was an agricultural researcher at Tuskegee Institute who helped improve farming in the South.
Many president used patronage or spoil system giving government jobs to supporters of the winning party in an election. This led to the assassination of President Garfield.
What is segregation?
Segregation is defined as the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment.
In the United States, the Black Codes were laws passed by Democrat-controlled Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt.
Convict leasing began in Alabama in 1846 and lasted until July 1, 1928, when Herbert Hoover was vying for the White House. In 1883, about 10 percent of Alabama's total revenue was derived from convict leasing.
Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States. Convict leasing provided prisoner labor to private parties, such as plantation owners and corporations (e.g. Tennessee Coal and Iron Company). The lessee was responsible for feeding, clothing, and housing the prisoners.
13th Amendment 1865
14th Amendment 1868
15th Amendment 1870
Section 1: Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Section 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Article I: All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Section 2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Carter G. Woodson was an African-American writer and historian known as the "Father of Black History Month." He penned the influential book The Mis-Education of the Negro.
Ida B. Wells was an African-American journalist and activist who led an anti-lynching crusade in the United States in the 1890s.
Marcus Garvey was a proponent of the Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, inspiring the Nation of Islam and the Rastafarian movement.
The Reconstruction Amendments guaranteed African Americans equal protection under the Constitution of the United States however, Southern states used Jim Crow laws to keep Blacks from obtaining true equality.
Niagara Movement was founded by W.E.B Du Bois and William Trotter in 1905. The Niagara Movement attempted to bring about legal change, addressing the issues of crime, economics, religion, health, and education. The Movement stood apart from other black organizations at the time because of its powerful, unequivocal demand for equal rights. The Niagara Movement forcefully demanded equal economic and educational opportunity as well as the vote for black men and women.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP ) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by W. E. B Du Boise, Ida B. Wells, and many others.
The intent of the grandfather clause was to prevent poor and illiterate African-American former slaves and their descendants from voting, but without denying poor and illiterate whites the right to vote.