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Containment & McCarthyism

An insight on these two concepts that emerged during the Cold War
by

Roseanne Christman

on 14 May 2013

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Transcript of Containment & McCarthyism

Containment & McCarthyism A fight for domination. Background... Soviet Union/communism United States/Capitalism Containment's legacy: McCarthyism What Happened: It's consequences today: The United States and Soviet Union, who were allies during WWII, became global powers, and more and more in conflict with each other. Policy put into practice: In march 1947, President Harry Truman asked the U.S congress to put $400-million into emergency assistance to Greece and Turkey, since they could be overthrown.
He justified his spending by saying that his doctrine, now known as the truman doctrine, was to "support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."
IN OTHER WORDS, he said that if Greece and Turkey didn't receive the help that they needed, they would fall to communism with important consequences. Igor Gouzenko
One of the triggers for the intense suspicions of treachery in the United States government was what happened with Igor Gouzenko. Due to the growing fear of communist influence on American institutions and espionage by Soviet Agents, thousands of Americans were accused of being communists or communist supporters. Most of the people accused were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators, and union activists. They were aggressively investigated and questioned before the government or private agencies. McCarthyism during the cold war period has increased security systems in the goverment, and today, oaths to the state are still required in most states.
McCarthyism is also compared to the anxiety from the government towards muslims after 9/11. Policy aimed at the prevention of the spread of communism Making unfair accusations of treason and disloyalty due to the heightened fears of communist influence on American institutions George F. Kennan was sent to London in 1944 where he served as counselor of the U.S delegation to the European Advisory Commission, which worked to prepare Allied Policy in Europe.

A few months later, he was appointed deputy chief of the U.S mission in Moscow, Russia, requested by Averell Harriman. ambassador to the Soviet Union.

He served this position until April 1946. In the end, the treasury department asked the State Department to explain the unwillingness from the Soviet Union to support the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank

While he was there, George F. Kennan tried time after time to persuade policy makers to to cooperation with the Soviet Union

Kennan responded on February 22, 1946, by sending a 5,500 word telegram( which is very long) from Moscow to the Secretary of State, James Byrnes, which outlined a new strategy on how to handle diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union "(...)the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies."
- The Sources of Soviet Conduct, George F. Kennan, January 1947 At the beginning of WWII, he joined the millitary where he was trained to decrypt messages, as he was a cipher clerk.
He came from Russia, from the village of Rogachovo, so he worked for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa.
In Ottawa, he enciphered messages to the GRU, which is the Russian Foreign military intelligence main directorate, and deciphered incoming messages. Being in this position, Gouzenko, at that point dissatisfied with his home country, finally exposed many Soviet secrets. These secrets showed the treachery of the soviets in Canada. Mainly, he exposed Joseph Stalin's efforts to steal nuclear secrets.
Today, Gouzenko is said to be a main actor in the start of the Cold War. Another main actor was Joseph McCarthy, which is where the term "McCarthyism" comes from. Joseph McCarthy was an American politician who was a Rupublican U.S Senator from 1947 until his death 10 years later, in 1957.
In 1950, he gave a speech on Licoln Day, where he said that the State Department was full of communists. None of his speech was recorded, but it's often said that McCarthy declared this: "The State Department is infested with communists. I have here in my hand a list of 205- a list of names that were made known to the secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy in the State Department." Did you know ? During the Cold war era, there was a Hollywood Blacklist. This was a list of people in the entertainment industry that were said to be associated with the American Communist Party. A lot of them were not hired simply for being on the list, which was not necessarily accurate. The Marshall Plan was a program made by the Americans which helped rebuild the economies of european countries that had been deeply affected by WWII. The real goal of this plan was to prevent the spread of communism in Europe. They were not only helping the countries' economies; they were promoting capitalism. Here is what Secretary of State George Marshall said about the plan: " Our policy is not directed against any country, but against hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos. Any government that is willing to assist in recovery will find full cooperation on the part of the U.S.A. It's purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist." - Containment led to the marshall plan, which had a good impact on the economy in Europe.
-Some European countries did not collaborate with the United States, which led to some sort of division of Europe.
-Because of the U.s supporting other nations economically, it developed some sort of alliance system. It is more known as "collective defense". Background VS. Prezi made by Roseanne Christman
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