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Invasive Species

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Nathalie Mitchell

on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of Invasive Species

Rethinking Landscapes
What is the best way of dealing with invasive species?
How are we currently dealing with invasive species?
Invasives of the Past
How the heck who ended up where and what we did about it

The Gypsy Moth (
Lymantria dispar
Found in North America
Release in Boston in 1868-1869
Very fast dispersal
How should we deal with invasive
species in the future?

Applying Technology
Further Research
Phragmites and Endophytes
Cane Toad and Meat Ant
Zebra Mussel Life Cycle
GELI: Gradual Entrainment Lake Inverter
Understanding the Species Themselves
Gypsy Moth
Understanding Relationships Between Species
Preventing Problems
Ameliorating Effects
What about the current state of the land makes it well-suited for invasives?
Citizen Science and Education
Benefiting from Invasives
Thinking Outside the Box
Crafting with Invasives
Eating Invasives
What next?
International Travel
Lacey Act
US Department of Agriculture's Quarantine- 37 regulations
Government Policy
Local Governments
e.g. the Emerald Ash Borer in Michigan
International Trade
2001 National Management plan
breaking down symbiotic relationships
exploiting adaptive weaknesses
Using ultrasound to prevent the spread of invasives through ballast water
Eliminating rainbow smelt by destratifying the water temperature
using materials from destructive invasive plants for "green" products
invasives as a food source
supporting local economies with invasives
Awareness is key
Involvement leads to vested interest
lowering mating success rate with pheromones
http:// www.emeraldashborer.info/ images/EABadultsideview. jpg
http://www. entomart. be
http:// www.aphis .usda.gov/ plant_health/lacey_ act/
http:// www. floridainvasives.org/toolbox /q37.pdf
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http://chicagomag.com/images/2011/1211/C201112-Asian-Carp-map. jpg
http://pagead2.googlesyndication.com/simgad/ 559382414114774117
http://www.invasives.org.za/item/424-invasive-trees-turned-into-school-desks. html#
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For most of human history, the introductions of invasive species have been unwitting. We have since moved from deliberate establishment and attempts at total eradication to efforts to find feasible ways to cope with them.

General Policy is preventive and focused on being cost effective. While this can work well, it is not a good policy for dealing with current invasive species.

In order to deal with invasive species issues in the future, we should look beyond conventional practices and try to find solutions that are species-specific.
http://www.wlrv.org/wrv_img_galleries/2010/youth_images/About2. JPG
Biological Control
http://www.nrs.fs.fed. us/disturbance/invasive_ species/eab/control_management/biological_ control/
http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2012/01/reverse-effect-jeanne-gang. jpg
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The 40,000 year-old Invasive
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Phragmites_australis_Schilfrohr. jpg
Invasive Species 101
http://images.smh.com.au/2009/03/31/442870/meatant-420x0. jpg
http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/PLANT/PublishingImages/191/ippm_profile_gm_191. jpg
http://www.wildnatureimages.com/I%20to%20R/KFNP-Field-Research-1. jpg
Our Contributions and Reactions: Journeys of the Invasives
Birdlife International. 2012. Turning Invasive Plants into Biofuels and Fertiliser Benefits both Biodiversity and Local Livelihood. [online] Available at: http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/sowb/casestudy/28 [Accessed: 19 Nov 2013].

Bogich, T. and Shea, K., 2008. A State-Dependent Model for the Optimal Management of an Invasive Metapopulation. Ecological Society of America, 18/3, 748-761.

Gaeta, J., Read, J., Kitchell, J. and Carpenter, S. 2012. Eradication via destratification: whole-lake mixing to selectively remove rainbow smelt, a cold-water invasive species. Ecological Applications, 22 (3), pp. 817--827.

Johnson, G. 2011. Chicago’s Looming Asian Carp Problem—What You Should Know. [online] Available at: http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/December-2011/Chicagos-Looming-Asian-Carp-Threat-What-You-Should-Know/index.php?cparticle=3&siarticle=2#artanc [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013].

Johnson, G. 2011. Jeanne Gang: Reversing the River Could Transform Chicago. [online] Available at: http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/December-2011/Jeanne-Gang-Reversing-the-River-Could-Transform-Chicago/ [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013].

Kowalski, K. 2012. Innovative Phragmites Control Strategies. [online] Available at: http://cida.usgs.gov/glri/projects/invasive_species/Phragmites_control.html [Accessed: 19 Nov 2013].

Lodge, D. M.; Williams, S.; MacIsaac, H. J.; Hayes, K. R.; Leung, B.; Reichard, S.; Mack, R. N.; Moyle, P. B.; Smith, M.; Andow, D. A.; Carlton, J. T.; and McMichael, A; 2006. Biological Invasions: Recommendations for US Policy and Management.Ecological Society of America, 16/6, 2035-2054.

Matthews, S. 2012. Ballast Blaster: Repelling invaders with sound. [online] Available at: http://greatlakesecho.org/2012/06/06/ballast-blaster-repelling-invaders-with-sound/ [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013].

Natural Resources Defense Council. 2010. Re-Envisioning the Chicago River: Adopting Comprehensive Regional Solutions to the Invasive Species Crisis. [online] Available at: http://www.nrdc.org/water/Chicagoriver/files/Chicago%20River.pdf [Accessed: 19 Nov 2013].

Onufrieva, K., Thorpe, K., Hickman, A., Tobin, P., Leonard, D. and Anderson Roberts, E. 2010. Effects of SPLAT GM sprayable pheromone formulation on gypsy moth mating success. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 136 (2), pp. 109-115. Available from: doi: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2010.01009.x [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013].

Reynolds, G. 2011. The Lionfish Solution: Put'em on the Menu. [online] Available at: http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/recreation/fishing/the-perfect-way-to-get-rid-of-invasive-species-eat-them [Accessed: 19 Nov 2013].

Silvertown, J. 2009. A New Dawn for Citizen Science. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24 (9), pp. 467- 471. [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013].

University Of Wisconsin-Madison. 2013. Crystal Lake Mixing Project. [online] Available at: http://crystallakemixing.com/ [Accessed: 19 Nov 2013].

Ward, L. 2011. Wild By Design. [online] Available at: http://www.conservancyonline.com/dl/652 [Accessed: 19 Nov 2013].

Ward-Fear, G., Brown, G., Greenlees, M. and Shine, R. 2009. Maladaptive traits in invasive species: in Australia, cane toads are more vulnerable to predatory ants than are native frogs. Functional Ecology, 23 (3), pp. 559-568. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2009.01556.x/abstract [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013].
The Accidents
Biocontrol: Staged Encounters
Environmental Management
-Each species evolves in its own environment and niche

-If placed in a new environment, they can:
> Die
> Continue to live & breed normatively
> Be extraordinarily successful
(e.g., face large prey populations, have few natural predators, outcompete others, hybridise, introduce diseases, etc.)
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Community Case Study: Mass Audubon
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-Homo erectus originated in Africa
-By 1 million years ago appx. 100,000 living across Eurasia
-Homo sapiens: Gene diffusion
-Homo sapiens: Competition between disctinct species 'Out of Africa'
-Circa 40,000-30,000 years ago Cro-Magnons began to outcompete Neanderthals in an unstable climate
-Ecological Footprints: use of resources and the space needed to produce them, meaning reduction in availability for other species
-Prevent new populations of invasive species from moving into non-native areas
-Concentrate protection efforts on areas w/high density of rare native species and ecosystems from invasion
-Restore ecological communities and habitats already damaged by invasive species when feasible
Kudzu: Japanese flowering vine, originally transported to America for decoration (introduced 1876, use as soil-binder 1935, listed by Department of Agriculture as common weed 1970).
-Thrived in hot, soil-rich climate.
-Planted in farms/pastures, spread uncontrollably.
Asian Clam: Arrived in Washington state around 1924 via Chinese immigrants.
-Rapid growth, high fecundity, hermaphroditic.
-Outcompete others, but help fill in ecological niche from suffering American freshwater mussel population, which is hardier but slower to reproduce.
- Total prevention is rarely possible. Only in extremely few cases is it justified to attempt, e.g. Asian Longhorn Beetle that infected 30,000 vulnerable hardwoods by 2010.
-Non-native plants identified by Massachusetts Invasive Plant Advisory Group banned by Massachusetts Department of Agricultural Resources.
-Looking for more methods of dealing with invasives in midst of globalisation and climate change.
- Volunteerism and planting/uprooting initiatives, as with efforts to remove Mile-a-Minute Vine and Kudzu.
- Davis: Do we want to wage war against invasive species? Depending on how we value ecosystems, are there better criteria?
-Occasionally successful, often goes awry.
-Asian mongoose brought from Calcutta to Jamaica in 1872, then most Hawaiian islands in 1883.
-Used on plantations to hunt invasive rats.
-Additionally preyed on game birds and native bird eggs.
Davis, Mark A. (2011). Don't judge species on their origins. Nature. 474, 153-54.

Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds and Westbrooks, Randy G., "Invasive Plants: Changing the Landscape of America" (1998). All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository).Paper 490. http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/govdocs/490

Mass Audubon Society. (2011). Strategy for the Management of Invasive Species On Massachusetts Audubon Society Wildlife Sanctuaries. Available: http://www.massaudubon.org/content/download/7042/129673/file/MAS_InvasiveSpeciesStrategy.pdf. Last accessed 15/11/2013.

McMahon, Robert F. (2011). Evolutionary and physiological adaptations of aquatic invasive animals: r selection versus resistance. Available: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/f02-105. Last accessed 17/11/2013.

Sutton, Philip W. (2007). The Environment. Cambridge: Polity Press. 95-107.

Wright, Ronald (2005). A Short History of Progress. Edinburgh: Canongate. 1-27.
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