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Transcript of kuttanad presentation
Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry,
Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala Deltoic formation
‘Holland of Kerala’
Lies below MSL
Theories of origin
Kari, Kayal and Karappadam(Koruth, 2007) 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr A B one two 12 21 22 Compare 11 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Floods and intrusion of salt water.
Biological oxidation (Subramoney, 1958)
Changes in Redox potential
Oxidation of sulphur compounds and subsequent hydrolysis (Money and Sukumaran, 1973)
Exchangeable aluminium (Alice, 1984) Soil Acidity Origin and Soils Cultivation Management of floods Flood Management Rice - Shrimp farming
Rice from January to May
Shrimp from March to October (Jayan and Sathyanathan, 2010) Soil Classification Types Acid Sulphate Peaty -Kari Soils
Saline Hydromorphic - kayal Soils
Acid Hydromorphic -Karappadom soils
( Unnikrishnan,1993) Head Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Kari soils - Fine loamy, Mixed, Isohyperthermic, Typic sulphaquent
Kayal soils - Fine mixed Isohyperthrmic, Aeric Tropaqepts
Karappadom soils - Fine Mixed, Isohyperthermic, Typic Hydraquent
(Unnikrishnan, 1993) Soil Taxonomy Fully burnt lime at the time of sowing (Subramoney and Sankaranarayanan, 1963)
Half the LR for karapadom soils
Full LR for the kari soils (Kabeerathumma, 1969)
Application of lime and phosphatic fertilizer (Varghese et al. 1970)
1/10th and 1/5th of LR for Kari Soils (Money and Sukumaran,1973)
Leaching of salts ,application of lime and continuous flooding for Rice (Kuruvila and Patnaik,1994)
Application of P and lime reduced the Al content of plants in Kari soil.
Liming alone for Kayal and Karappadom soils (Muralidharan and Rattan, 2001) Acididty Management - Liming Effects of Liming on Nutrients Increase the available nitrogen (Anandavalli et al.1966)
P availability increased when limed with phosphate (Kurup,1967)
Liming reduced the Ex. K due to fixation in Kuttanad soils (Kabeerathumma and Nair, 1973) Effects of Liming on nutrients pH, Ex. base saturation, Ca and total Ex. bases significantly and negatively correlated with LR (Kuruvila, 1974)
Liming and High fertilizer dose retard iron toxicity (Thampatti et al. 2005)
Doses and sources of lime have no influence on rice in kuttanad soils (Annie et al., 1990) Challenges Tourism
Extinction of fish fauna
(Jayan and Sathyanandan, 2010) Annie, K., Nair, K.C. and Indira, M. 1990. Soils and nutrition In: Aravindakshan, M. and Nair, R.R. (eds.) Five Decades of Rice Research in Kuttanad , Kerala Agricultural University, pp. 27-33
Money, N.S. and Sukumaran, K.M. 1973. Chemical, Morphological and Agronomic aspects of the Acid Saline Water-logged Soils of Kerala In: Kunju et al. (eds.) Technical Bulletin No.1, Director Extension Education, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy, pp.1-26
Marykutty, K.C. 1986. Factors governing response of rice to liming in Kerala soils. PhD thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur, 316 p.
References Subramoney, N. 1958. Chemical and Microbiological studies on the acid peats of Kerala. PhD thesis, University of Travencore, Trivandrum, 232p.
Alice, A. 1984.The release of soluble aluminium in soils under submerged conditions and its effects on rice. PhD. thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Thrissur.
Jayan P R, Nithya Sathyanathan. Overview of farming practices in the water-logged areas of Kerala, India. Int J Agric & Biol Eng, 2010; 3(4): 1833.
Subramoney, N. and Sankaranarayanan, C. 1963. Preliminary studies on the liming of Kerala soils. Agric. Res. J. Kerala 2: 24-29