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Fetal Pig Dissection

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Hilary Lussier

on 6 June 2011

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Transcript of Fetal Pig Dissection

Fetal Pig Dissection -Skeletal System- The skeletal system of the fetal pig is very similar to the skeletal system of a human. In both a fetal pig and human their bones are held together by cartilage, ligaments, and muscles. Both humans and pigs have ulna and radius bones. Along with similar skulls, patella’s, ribs, scapulas, humorous, many vertebrae’s, femurs, tibias and fibulas just to name a few. Adult pigs have 44 teeth and humans who also have teeth only have 32, but humans also have two sets of teeth. Adult pigs have 216 bones, compared to the human who has 206 bones but at birth have between 300-350 bones. The function bones serve are to give support to the pig, and provides points where skeletal muscles can attach. The skeletal system of a pig also serves protection against injury of internal organs such as the brain and lungs. The structure of bones within the pig are made of a hard shell known as compact, and is surrounded by cartilage. Inside the hard shell is a spongy bone, bone marrow, blood vessels, medullary cavity, Periosteum, and Endosteum. Bones of the fetal pig are located throughout the body to serve structure and support movement of the pig. Skull Spine Ribs Radius Femur Tibia/Fibia Illium Integumentary System As in humans the integumentary system of the pig incluids that skin, hair, fingernails, and toe nails. The pig is surrounded by a layer of skin for the same reason humans are, to support and protect bones and organs. Pigs also have hair alike humans but it is called bristles. Because pigs do not sweat they have little hairs to help regulate tempertaure and that is one reason they roll in mud so often. Humans have hair to portect different parts of our body. In both humans and pigs eyelashes protect particles from our eyes to sensor when to close. Both humans and pigs have nails, but the pig has a hoof to better protect its toes. Muscular System Pigs and humans share many similar muscles. Both humans and pigs have deltoid muscles in their shoulders, and Pectoralis majors in their chest. They also have triceps brachii muscles and biceps brachii muscles within their limbs. They both have biceps femoris, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles within their legs. Humans have between 656 muscles and 850 muscles within their body compared to the pig which has between 142 to 333 different muscles. Both pigs and humans are made up of three different muscles such as the involuntary/smooth muscle, the cardiac muscle, and the voluntary/skeletal muscle. Involuntary/smooth muscles in pigs is normally in the digestive systems, and the blood vessel walls, and the cardiac muscles are normally located near the heart. The voluntary/skeletal muscle is the main muscle mass forming the muscular skeletal system. Muscles are typically made up of muscle tissue, nerves, and vascular components. Inside the muscle is endomysium and muscle fiber. Muscles in the pig allow the pig to move, and give protection to the bones it surrounds. Muscles are located throughout the pigs body and relates to other organs because like the skin and bones it give other internal organs protection. Circulatory System The circulatory system in both pigs and humans consist of the heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries which circulates blood throughout the body. In both the blood brings oxygen from the lungs to all the different cells of the body, while also removing waste through the lungs and kidneys. Also they both share a very similar pulmonary system which is apart of the circulatory system where the blood is carried from the lungs where the heart has pumped blood so it can gather oxygen. The blood then returns to the heart. The heart is made of two pumps in both the pig and human, and on the right side is where the deoxygenated blood is pumped to the lungs and the left side take the oxygen filled blood and pumps it to the rest of the body. The human and pig heart both contain the vena cava, the right/left atrium, the right/left ventricle, and the aorta. In the pigs circulatory system its structure is made up of many veins and capillaries to distribute the oxygenated blood throughout the body as well as to return the deoxygenated blood back to the heart, which is also apart of the structure. The function of the circulatory system of the pig is to carry oxygen that is need for other organs to properly function, and also to remove carbon dioxide. It also helps in fighting against infections. In pigs blood is mainly composed of two parts known as plasma and blood cells. They too have red and white blood cells, their blood contains platelets which help reduce blood clotting. Pigs blood vessels are known as arteries and veins, and their responsible for carrying blood from the heart to the whole pigs body, while the veins return blood to the heart, although in the fetal pig the circulation of blood is somewhat different because it receives oxygenated blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein from the oxygen the mother takes in. Veins Heart Lungs Digestive System Both humans and pigs have very similar digestive systems. They are only have one stomach, which is known as monogastic. Digestion of the intake of food in both pigs and humans occurs along the digestive track. The digestive track of both the pig and human is made up of five main parts; the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small/large intestines. The food consumed by either the pig or human is taken in through the mouth, where the breakdown of food begins. The teeth chew the food into smaller pieces and saliva in the mouth softens the small food particles. The tongue then pushes the food down the throat, to the esophagus. The esophagus is a tube which leads down to the stomach in both humans and pigs. In the stomach chemicals break down the food where some nurturance is absorbed. Then the food enters the small intestine which breaks down the food with help from the liver and pancreas. This is where most of the nurturance is taken in. Lastly the food enters the large intestine where waste material make up feces. Lastly the waste exits both humans and pigs through the anus. The digestive system is constructed to turn food into energy that the pigs need to survive. In a pig the digestive system start when the pig begins to chew the food, it then enters the esophagus, stomach small intestine, large intestine, and waste removed through the anus. Which is located throughout the internal structures of the pig. The stomach is located under the liver, and the small intestine is to the left of the pigs stomach, which connects to the large intestine. The esophagus is connected in the back of the throat and leads down into the stomach of the pig. The digestive system relates to other systems because it provides the energy needed for the pig to survive. Mouth Esophagus Large Intestine Small Intestine Stomach Nervous System The nervous system of both pigs and humans consist of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic system. The brain in both humans and pigs is enclosed by the skull and has nervous tissue surround it. The spinal cord extends from the brain to the narrow canal to the tail, much similar to humans. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves leaving the brain and the spinal cord to transmit the electrical impulses throughout the body, just like humans. The autonomic nerbous system is the involuntary nervous system that controls the heart, lungs, movement of the muscular wall during digestion. The nervous system is what helps pigs control their movement, and functions of their body. The function of the brain is the reception of stimuli, which is contributed by sensory cells. The system transfers information throughout the body through impulses called nerve impulses, which are sent and received by neurons. One of the main parts of the nervous system includes the brain, which is located in the skull of the pig. Also the spinal cord which serves a great purpose to the nervous system is located on the back of the pig, and lastly the major part to this system is the nerves which are located throughout the pigs whole entire body. The nervous system interacts with all other systems because that is the major way they are controlled and know what to do along with when to do it. Reproductive System The reproductive system of a male in both humans a pigs is supported by the pelvis. The testes is where sperm is produced. In both humans and pigs their male reproductive system is made of up of the prostate gland, sperm duct, epididymis, scrotal sac, testis, and penis. Female pigs and female humans also have very similar reproductive systems such as the ovaries, the oviduct, vervix, urethra, and vagina. Humans when they conceive remain pregnant for 9 months, compared to pigs who are only pregnant for around 4-5 months. Humans also typically have one child at a time, where a pig can have between 1 and 14 piglets born in one litter. The main function to the reproductive system is to reproduce for survival so pigs don’t become extinct, through the joining of sperm from male pigs, and eggs from female pigs. The reproductive system of the pig is located on the lower under part of the pig. Ribs Ribs Pectoralis Major Latissimus Dorsi External Intercostals/ Internal Intercostals Rectus Femoris/Castus Medialis Penis Our experience with dissecting the skeletal system of the fetal pig was very overwhelming. We had a harder time breaking into the skull of our fetal pig to get to our pigs brain, which is apart of the nervous system. While dissecting the interumentary system of our fetal pig, we notcied there were little bristles on the bottom of the chin, and its mouth, we did not have a very hard time getting through the skin of our pig. However, the muscular system of our fetal pig was a little thinker and tougher to get through,. After we skinned the pig, all the muscles of our pig was revealed. The circulatory system of our pig wasnt very hard to find. After we revealed the internal organs it quickly became clear where the viens and capillaries were, as long as the heart and lungs. The digestive system was by far was the most interesting, when we took out the stomach and cut it open, a brown liquid came out. it was very easy to identify which organ was which, within the placement of the pigs body. Once again, getting to the brain was the most difficult to get to because we had to break through the skull of the fetal pig, but once the
sk8ull was removed it was very easy to see the brain. Our pig was a male pig, and the reproductive system was the hardest to identify the parts. After removing more muscle it became more clear which part was which, along with locating the testis.
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