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Fiona Howard

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of ISCR

Afghanistan and the Soviet Union:
Coercive Diplomacy & Intervention Introduction Background information

Explanations of coercive diplomacy and intervention

Two different perspectives: the Soviet Union and the United States


Was the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan successful?

Was the American strategy of coercive diplomacy successful?
Background Information 1979: Soviet paratroopers land in Kabul

Existing civil war in Afghanistan

Thousands of Afghans joined the Mujahideen

New Prime Minister Babrak Kamal

The Mujahideen proved to be a formidable opponent

Soviet Intervention International Opinon
The U.N. condemned the invasion as early as January 1980

America put a ban on the export of grains to Russia, ended the SALT talks and boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games

After Soviet Pull Out Mikhail Gorbachev took Russia out of the Afghanistan fiasco when he realised Russia could not win the war

The mujahideen was at war with itself in Afghanistan Definitions Coercive Diplomacy is the diplomacy of threats.

Successful coercive diplomacy:

the threat must be credible and use of force must be limited to defeat the adversary's gains quickly with little cost
issue deadlines for compliance
offer inducements
reassure opponents that compliance will not trigger new demands

Psychological nature makes it difficult to predict or guarantee success in any particular case.
Intervention is when the political government of a state decides actions of foreign intervention and foreign policy.

Forms of intervention include economic sanctions, sanctions on international cooperation, occupation, nation- building and national security policies.
Two Perspectives The Soviet Union United States Of America What were your motives to intervene in Afghanistan?

What were the reasons to get involved in Afghanistan?

Controversies Did the Soviet Union have a ‘grand strategy’ to expand its influence in the world ?

Were the Americans planning on getting involved or not?
Conclusions Was the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan successful?

The Soviet Union’s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan definitely serves as a major milestone in the demise of the Soviet Empire:

‘peace loving’ image of S.U. disappeared
heavy casualties
military inferiority
adverse effects on Russian economy
Was the American strategy of coercive diplomacy and intervention successful?

More effective strategy for imposing foreign policy constraint than for engineering internal political change:
1988 Geneva Accords was an unprecedented reversal of policy
Less successful in deposing the Najibullah regime and bringing the mujahideen to power
Cold War Struggle
Stop spread of Communism
Threat to US influence in area Imposed sanctions
Stopped SALT talks
Boycotted Moscow Olympic Games in 1980
How did you intervene? Why did you decide to withdraw from Afghanistan? To prevent an anti communist party taking over in the form of the Mostem insurgents.

To regain face internationally

To support the current communist government

To remove radical elements from the Afghanistan government, which were aggravating the political situation

The Afgan war tied down 100,000 of Russia’s troops and was hugely costly in diplomatic terms

By 1982 the Russians were being dominated by the Mujahideen who controlled 75% of the country.
Operation Cyclone
CIA arming and funding of Mujahideen
National Security Decision Directive (NSDD) 166
Placed goal of military victory for the Mujahideen in 1985 and increased support
Full transcript