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Phosphorus

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Bob Zimth

on 2 June 2015

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Transcript of Phosphorus

Phosphorus
Phosphorus has a 280 degrees Celsius boiling point (boiling point is the temprature at which a liquid turns to vapor) ,44.1 degrees Celsius melting point (melting point is when an element turns from a solid to a liquid), 20 degrees Celsius freezing point (freezing point is when an element goes from a liquid to a solid), a heat capacity of phosphorus is .7697 J/G (Heat capacity is the ammount of energy it takes a solid to be raised one degree celcius), and a density (Density is the degree of compactness of a substance) Solid density of 1.82 g cm^3 ,Liquid density of 1.7684


Discovery
Biology and Toxicity
Purification
Industrial uses
Nicolas Johnson
The atomic symbol is P
The atomic number is 15
The average atomic mass is 31
It has 15 protons 16 neutrons and 15 electrons
Phosphorus is a nonmetal, it is in the 15th row, and its most common ion is P^3- a. PH^4 + , P^3− , H2 PO^3 − , PO4^3−
Pure phosphorus comes in three forms the most common of which are white and red phosphorus at room temperature both are solid


White phosphorus
Can be a solid waxy block with a yellowish inside it can be ground in to a white powder
Red phosphorus
can be seen as a reddish brown rock but when ground it can turn in to a powder
Some psychical properties of Phosphorus are
Phosphorus was discovered in 1669 by Hennig Brand. Phosphorus is not found in pure form in nature but is found in many minerals and rocks.
some rocks with phosphorus in them.
Phosphorus is continually passed through a heat exchanger and heated to vaporize a portion of the phosphorus at a temperature not above 200° C., separating the vaporized phosphorus in a disengaging zone under subatmospheric pressure and introducing it into a fractionating zone under subatmospheric pressure, fractionating the phosphorus from the less volatile arsenic, condensing under subatmospheric pressure low-arsenic phosphorus rising from the fractionating zone, returning a portion of the low-arsenic phosphorus condensate as reflux to the column, removing high-arsenic liquid phosphorus as bottoms from the fractionating zone, and recovering the remaining portion of low-arsenic phosphorus condensate as product.
A picture of the process here
Though mostly military phosphorus has very many uses industrially. It can be used to create white smoke, tracer bullets, incendiary bullets and match heads.
Tracer bullets work by having a small ammount of phosphorus in the tip that when the bullet is fired it ignites with a bright red flame that can show the trail of the bullet.
Match tips have white phosphorus on them because of their ease of ignition from friction.
Incendiary bullets are mostly used in planes but can be more easily seen here, the phosphorus ignites along with the black powder and keeps burning to ignite anything flammable it makes contact with.
White phosphorus grenades nicknamed "Willy Pete" as seen here marked with "WP" consist of a priming charge a striking pin and phosphorus that ignites with a very strong white non toxic smoke cloud not found burning anything else.
Phosphorus is needed to make bones stronger along with calcium and is also needed for the creation of DNA
Excess phosphorus can cause hyperphosphatemia or high blood phosphate levels. Other than being toxic it can cause very serious burn wounds that mostly lead to death.
Interesting facts
Phosphorus has been used in many explosive incendiary things it gained the nickname the devil's element.
It is also the 11th most common element on earth.
It is not found pure in nature but it is found in many minerals. Can be used in ways that violate the Geneva convention but is not entirely banned. Mostly found in just five countries Morocco, China, South Africa, Jordan and the United States.

https://www.cia.gov for all flags
rapgenius/1371846764_periodic_table_of_elements.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/55/Phosphorus2.jpg/220px-Phosphorus2.jpg
http://www.jollygerman.com/livestock/images/dicalciumphosphate.jpg
http://agro-technology-atlas.eu/images/phosphorus.jpg
http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/2008/12/14/darius/c19c1f.jpg
https://chivethebrigade.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/user-c-130-kentucky-920-71.jpg?w=920&h=744
http://www.askahain.de/vietnam/vn-database-mirror/Guns/M15.jpg
http://i.ytimg.com/vi/RP4FjODPDFA/maxresdefault.jpg
http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-473-488-90/72/7228/SCJN100Z/posters/laguna-design-match-tip.jpg
http://images.vectorhq.com/images/previews/5e6/glowing-dna-psd-453540.png
Bibliography
Image Credits
Phosphorus Element facts
http://www.chemicool.com/elements/phosphorus.html

Pattent US 4483746 A
http://www.google.com/patents/US4483746

Phosphorus facts

http://www.softschools.com/facts/periodic_table/phosphorus_facts/198/

Phosphorus Uses
https://www.webelements.com/phosphorus/uses.html

The Heat of Fusion and the Heat Capacities of Solid and Liquid White Phosphorus

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja01256a029?journalCode=jacsat

The Element Phosphorus

http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele015.html
Full transcript