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Assessing Struggling Readers' Needs

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Linda Impecoven-Lind

on 3 June 2014

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Transcript of Assessing Struggling Readers' Needs

Principles of Classroom Reading Assessment
Principles of Classroom Reading Assessment
Areas of Concern
in Struggling Readers
Principles of Classroom Reading Assessment
Principles of Classroom Reading Assessment
Principle 1: The teacher's goal is to find out what children can do.
Principle 2: Assessment informs instruction.
Principle 3: Be prepared - gather your assessment "tools" in advance.
Principle 5: Document student's growth in reading over time.
Principle 4: Analyze student's assessment results using IF-THEN thinking
Sp Ed 553
Summer 2014

Every K-12 teacher is EXPECTED to know how to assess students.

Effective classroom assessment procedures allow a teacher to identify and document whether or not appropriate progress has been demonstrated by students in his/her classroom.

Assessing Struggling Readers' Needs
One of the most difficult tasks for many teachers is to analyze assessment data and choose appropriate teaching strategies for instruction.
Use IF-THEN thinking
IF you know that a student is able to do X in reading, THEN s/he is now ready to learn Y.
Locate where child is on his/her path of development.
Gather as much diagnostic & evaluative information as possible from students.
Do not use any single test or test score as a sole indicator of literacy skills.
Principles of Classroom Reading Assessment
Effective teaching cannot beginning until you first discover where students are in their reading development.
Avoids wasting valuable instructional time teaching skills students already own or those which are too advanced at that point in time.
DO NOT depend on state-mandated assessments alone to inform your instruction.
Have a tool-box of assessment tools that are easy to access.
Reading assessment is not a one-shot activity.
Should be ongoing and integral part of teaching and learning.
Types of Formal Reading Assessments
Word Study
Many older readers struggle to read at the word level but lack opportunities to develop needed skills in this area.
Fluent readers decode words automatically and continuously group and regroup words in ways that promote understanding.
Fluency instruction is NOT included in most reading programs.
Knowing the meaning of words relates strongly to reading comprehension and overall academic success (Baumann, Kame'enui & Ash, 2003)
When students understand the meanings of the words they encounter in text and have strategies to figure out unknown words, they are more likely to comprehend the content of what they are reading.
Most teachers expect students to use comprehension strategies during reading but do not explicitly teach the skills to use these strategies successfully (Pressley, 2006).
Adolescent struggling readers often lack motivation to read. This impairs their comprehension and limits their ability to develop effective reading strategies or to learn from what they read, thus limiting their exposure to important content-area information, world knowledge, and vocabulary.
Diagnostic Assessment of Reading (DAR)
Authors: Florence G. Roswell & Jean S. Chall
Publisher: Riverside Publishing
Cost: $150.50
Reading Components Addressed:
Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary & Comprehension
Test Administration:
Useful tool for assessing strengths and needs on individual or small group basis.
Gray Oral Reading Tests
J. Lee Wierderholt & Brian R. Bryant
PRO-ED, Inc.
Reading Components Addressed:
Phonics, Fluency, Comprehension
Test Administration:
Offers consistent measure of oral reading ability and can be valuable in identifying struggling readers or monitoring progress.
Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
Richard Woodcock
AGS Publishing
Reading Components Addressed:
Phonics, Fluency, Comprehension
Test Administration:
Multiple subtests to identify specific deficits.
Informal Reading Inventories
Individually administered diagnostic assessments designed to evaluate several different aspects of a student's reading performance.
Among the most widely used forms of assessment for diagnosing specific struggles of readers.
Can be commercially prepared or teacher-made tests.
Informal Assessment Tools
Match student with appropriate reading materials
Place students in guided reading groups
Design instruction to address student's noted strengths and needs
Document reading progress over time
Help educators diagnose the gaps in the abilities of readers who struggle the most
Uses of Info Collected from IRI
Word Lists
Goal: Estimating the starting point for the passages.
Begin by choosing a word list that is 2-3 years below the child's chronological grade placement.
Administer the 1st word list, recording automatic and identified responses.
Goal is to find the independent, instructional and frustration levels.
Reading Passages
Determine a student's independent, instructional, and frustration levels.
Assess a student's ability to read different types of text.
Assess a student's ability to comprehend in different modes (oral vs silent)
Reading Passages - Diagnostic Options
Assessment of prior knowledge
Oral reading miscue analysis
Assessment of comprehension through unaided recall
Assessment of comprehension through look-backs
Assessment of comprehension through think-alouds
Reading Passages
Choose passage for student to read.
The student should have score at the independent level on the corresponding word list.
Ask student to read the passage silently or orally.
Orally - record miscues and time the student's rate
Silently - record student's rate
Ask student to do a retell, answer questions, or both
Find independent, instructional and frustration levels.
Reading Levels
Independent Level
Level at which a student can read successfully without assistance
Oral reading is fluent
Accuracy is 98% or above
Comprehension should be 90% or above
Students should read materials at this level for free reading, strategy instruction, fluency practice
Instructional Level
Level at which a student can read with assistance from a teacher
Accuracy should be at 95% or above for meaning changing miscues
Comprehension should be at 70% or above
Students should read materials at this level for content area instruction
Frustration Level
Level at which a student is unable to read the material
Accuracy is less than 90% and comprehension is less than 70%
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