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Medical Ethics Exam II

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Victor Tarantino

on 11 March 2015

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Transcript of Medical Ethics Exam II

Assisted Reproduction II
Assisted Reproduction
Enhancement
Assisted Reproduction II
Medical Ethics Exam II
Plastic Surgery
Doping
Cloning
Sperm and Egg Donors
Surrogacy
Who should be parents?
Who should be parents
The idea of self enhancement as opposed to genetic enhancement of others
autonomy
Without the brain, is the body something to intrinsically value?
the mind's role in personhood
without a brain, do we value the human body?
Pros
Enhances self-esteem
replaces psychiatry w/ psychology
Social status
leveling the playing field
Autonomy to do what we please to ourselves
Potential health risks are minimal
we risk our lives for surgery all the time
We do not have an obligation to maintain our bodies
if we did we would have no medicine
Treats a person's symptoms, not the problem
pro psychiatry w/ psychology
It is not universally affordable
will not level the playing field because it will create a divide between the rich and the poor
Potential health risks are risks
precautionary principle/ it is not a "necessary" surgery
Are we preserving our bodies if genetic enhancement is not fully accepted?
I guess so
Cons
Pro
Con
Regulating offenders is expensive and inefficient
If players don't need to hide it, they can better monitor their health
Difficult to distinguish the difference between doping and practicing
more blood cells for people who train in Utah than New York
we already allow caffeine and sleep patterns to better our performance
Levels the playing field for those not born to be players
increases autonomy of individuals
Positively affects the "spirit of the game" in respect to the players (competition and progress)
the fans like to see players and their progress
If the drugs cause health problems in the first place, don't do them and you won't need to monitor your health
Drugs might work better on some people and worse on others
therefore the playing field is still not leveled
Negatively affects the "spirit of the game" in respect to the game
the fans like to see the game
Sends a wrong message to the youth
Coerces non-dope users to use dope to stay in the game
Is it bad to push yourself to your limits?
Tooley
Mindless Organ Banks
personhood requires self awareness
it's not killing because their are not persons without a brain
preventing personhood
we do this with abortion
active potential
if left alone, it will become a person
a zygote left alone will die, it needs a mother
active potential may be tampered with
it is okay to fuck with the zygote to prevent a brain from developing
Persons
is problematic with today's technology
helps infertile people and couples (gays) have kids
values knowing genetic material to optimize how one lives
clones will be individuals because our environment shapes us
Pro Cloning for...
Pro
Research nature v. nurture
People can have genetically related children
Voluntary tissue donor
Con
Respecting the human body
the value of the body without the mind
is there a soul without the mind?
Tooley says no
Genetic variability is important
Tissue donors put instrumental value on individuals
The Right to Choose Your Donor
Pennings-Pro Choosing
Should Gametes be Sold or Given?
Daniels- Given
Although some argue there is no compelling reason to have a matching donor for single women and lesbians, Pennings says there are...
Autonomy
the fact that you have the choice to know or not know your donor
choosing your donor is like choosing your partner
Secrecy
no one should know if your kid is not biologically yours
it is difficult to separate yourself from your donor if you "know" him
Physical relation with child
choice of features
not like genetic enhancement because not all traits are heritable
genetic relations helps children to understand their identity
Discrimination is a problem, BUT
there might be compelling reasons to deviate from a type of person
ex: Jews have more genetic diseases
The history of donations has no payment
Payment is the driving force of donations
shows that people don't consent to giving up their sperm, they consent to getting paid
consent is free from pressure
Paying for human life/fathers wanted money, not kids
negative affects on children
equivalent to children who were unplanned/unwanted
If we ban trade on children and embryos, we should ban trade on gametes
The government should regulate this
Surrogacy's Effect on Women
Purdy
Baby M
Empowerment of Women
Disempowerment of Women
Alleviating infertility
Distributing burdens and risks
we do this already in the work place
poor people work in areas with increased risks
machinery, toxins, chemicals
Undermining traditional notions of family
we already separate reproduction from sex and reproduction from child-rearing
contraception and nurseries/orphanages
People take women and pregnancy for granted
this would have people respect it because they are paying for it now
increases women's status
Claims there is nothing wrong with selling babies/children
Women should get paid regardless of the baby's health
Autonomy to chose to be a surrogate
"A surrogate mother agrees to have a baby for someone else, but ends up wanting to keep the baby. Because you cannot contract a baby, the custody went to the surrogate mother BUT because the surrogate mother couldn't offer a sustainable home, custody went to the social parents
Problems with surrogacy
Surrogacy aids to our classist, patriarchal society
Women parting with a child is harmful
Because women don't have an obligation to have kids (kids are wanted not needed), so there is no obligation to transfer burdens or risks
Just because your autonomy is taken away, doesn't mean it is wrong to do so
Velleman
Anti-Surrogacy/Gamete Donation
The genetic bond between parents and children is important
genetic parents are responsible for helping their kids with the idea that they fear failure of life and won't rise above life's challenges
taking time to develop happiness and flourishment
the gift of life is an opportunity given by parents
Evolution: individuals want to pass on their genes into the next generation
Parental obligations are not transferable
If a child grows up without both biological parents, their quality of life is lower
knowing your genetic lineage is important in...
creating your own identity
preventing alienation from family members/relations
preventing existential insecurity
comparing one's self people around you
Cloning Seems to be Best
Problems with Velleman
A child mater off leaving their genetic parents
if parents are abusive or unrelatable
People make their own identity
Alienation can be prevented by more than just family members
club members, friends, etc...
You can compare yourself to your peers, etc...
it might be unbeneficial to compare yourself in the first place
Problems with Tooley
Bodies (even embryos) may have souls
If you left alone a todler, it would die as well
this is impermisable because a todler is self-aware
Knowing your genetic makeup may prevent you from being an individual with an open future
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