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Bisphenol A: Risks & Benefits

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on 8 March 2013

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Transcript of Bisphenol A: Risks & Benefits

Bisphenol A By: Priynka Dhillon Chemical information, risks, and benefits on the environment or other
organisms. SCH3U Unit 1 Culminating What is Bisphenol A or BPA? BPA is an organic compound which is labeled as an industrial chemical as it is produced in excessive quantities in industries in order to be incorporated into and make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins to make our lives easier and more convenient. Organic Compound: Any compound containing carbon and is linked to other elements in a covalent bond. Where is Bisphenol A found? BPA used to make polycarbonate plastics can be
found in products such as, CD's, DVD's, electrical/electronic equipment, automobiles, sports safety equipment, reusable food/drink containers/bottles, and many others. Polycarbonate plastics are light-weight, durable, have good electrical resistance and can withstand high temperatures which make them excellent materials for the above products. Epoxy resins are durable, malleable, adhesive and have exceptional chemical resistance
which makes them excellent materials for protective coatings. Cont... BPA used to make epoxy resins can be found in engineering oriented items such as electrical laminates for circuit boards, paints, adhesives and adhesive coatings.

They can also be found as the protective lining in metal cans to protect the quality of the beverage or food. Part 1: Bisphenol A as a chemical What is the chemical formula of BPA? The chemical formula of bisphenol A is: (CH ) C(C H OH) 3 2 6 4 2 or C H O 15 16 2 BPA contains only Carbon (15 atoms), Hydrogen (16 atoms) and Oxygen (2 atoms). The Chemical Structure: The Physical Properties of Bisphenol A Melting Point (°C): 150-159
Boiling Point (°C): 220
Flash Point (°C): 227
Specific Gravity: 1.195 (25/25°C)
Vapour Pressure (Pa): (2.27 × 10 mm Hg)
Density (kg/m ): 1195 at 25 °C
Physical Appearance: White Crystal Flakes/Powder -7 The Chemical Properties of Bisphenol A 3 Water Solubility: <1 mg/mL at 21.5°C (poorly soluble) General Solubility: 120 to 300mg/L at pH 7.00
Reacts strongly with acid anhydrides, acid chlorides and strong bases
Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air
Reacts violently with strong oxidants Bisphenol A Synthesis Bisphenol A is created by a condensation reaction (dehydration synthesis) between phenol and acetone. Condensation Reaction: The removal of an H2O molecule (water) to join two molecules together to form a larger molecule. phenol phenol acetone After it is created, BPA is washed with water, neutralized with calcium hydroxide, and distilled under a vacuum. Part 2: The Benefits of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate Plastic BPA is a key component in making polycarbonate plastics that are durable, strong, lightweight, heat/shatter resistant and transparent to help improve everyday products to make our lives easier. Examples of these everyday items are: Household Electronics - Cellphones, Hair Dryers, Computers, TV etc. Blu Ray, Discs, CD's, DVD's Electrical Equipment: Plugs, Fuse Boxes,
Lamps etc. Solar Panel Covers Protective Glass Spectacle Lenses Medical Devices: blood oxygenators, respirators Water Bottles Polycarbonate plastics made with
BPA have innovative potential to increase in design and performance allowing us to live a increasingly modern lifestyle. Epoxy Resins BPA is another key component in the making of epoxy resins to create adhesives and coatings. Epoxy Resins made with BPA in our everyday life: Food/Drink Storage Containers: Protective coatings made from BPA epoxy resins coat inside containers and metal cans to help protect the integrity and quality of the content as well as prevent contamination. Electronics: BPA epoxy resins are heat/chemical/electricity resistant and are therefore a coating for electronic appliances as it is an important property for these products which make our life safer. Adhesives: BPA epoxy resins are used to protect pipes and other fitting from corrosion as they are strong against rust/corrosion.mechanically strong and thermally stable. 30% of BPA use is from Epoxy Resins. Here is a quick look at the Epoxy Resins demand for a variety of products in 2009: Environmental Benefits Plastics made from BPA have environmental benefits such as: BPA Polycarbonate auto components are light weight. Thus, they reduce the weight of the vehicle which increases fuel efficiency. In response, the carbon emissions are reduced because less fuel is used. Medical Equipment made from BPA Polycarbonate can be reused multiple times because BPA polycarbonate allows the device to withstand multiple sterilization procedures. BPA Epoxy Resin coating allows floor tiles to be more durable allowing for less replacements. Thus, less garbage in the landfills. BPA is biodegradable. BPA polycarbonate has profound light transmitting properties which allows it to improve the back-lighting of LED flat screen TVs. Thus, lowering the energy consumption and saving CO2 emissions. BPA Saves Resources Technology: BPA polycarbonate has dramatically improved the storage capacity on HD DVD and blue ray discs by a factor of 34-40. This decreases the need for resources. Reusable: BPA polycarbonate is more stronger and durable than other plastics. (BPA poly carbonate is stronger than glass.) Thus, they can be reused longer. Eg. 5 gallon water bottles can be reused 100 times before being recycled! Part 3: The Risks of Bisphenol A Risk of Cardiovascular Disease How is an individual exposed to Bisphenol A? An individual is exposed to BPA through
the leaching of the chemical. This occurs because the ester bonds that form to link the monomers (BPA) into the polymer (plastic) break when the temperatures rise. E.g With room temperature water, BPA was released at a rate of 0.2 to 0.8 nano-grams per hour. The BPA was released 15 to 55 times faster with the boiling water, with a rate of 8 to 32 nano-grams per hour. Also, BPA is very subjective to hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is the removal of a H2O molecule from the bonds to break apart two monomers that formed a larger molecule (polymer). This is why the ester bonds are not stable and the BPA decays over time which leaches the chemical. The leaching and exposure of BPA can cause many health risks as well as
short and long term consequences. In contrast, it can also cause risks and
damage to the environment and organisms.

LETS TAKE A LOOK! Many studies conducted have shown the risk of users with BPA exposure to be in the risk of getting cardiovascular disease, such as heart disease. September 2008 1455 American participants were tested and found that 90% had significant levels of BPA in their urine. Researchers have stated that
those with the highest amounts of BPA in their urine have three time the odds of acquiring cardiovascular disease than those with lower levels of BPA in their urine! The relationship between BPA and Cardiovascular remains likely as shown in a Circulation Study. 758 subjects acquired heart disease and 851 subjects remained healthy. The 758 subjects with heart disease had higher levels of BPA at the start of the 10 year study. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Estrogen: Estrogen is a natural insulin regulator. However, BPA carries similar estrogenic properties and tricks the body into thinking it is estrogen. This is why it is labeled as an endocrine disruptor. How does this link to Diabetes and Obesity? BPA triggers the release of almost double the required amount of insulin for the body while acting like estrogen. These high levels of insulin over time can make the body less sensitive to the hormone. Therefore, in some individuals it can cause type 2 diabetes and weight gain leading to obesity. Risks to fetus: The developing fetus in pregnant women is also exposed to BPA and higher levels of insulin. Considering that this is the most essential/delicate period, it can make the growing environment for the fetus very dangerous. The BPA chemical in the growing fetus can navigate it to
develop more fat cells and cause obesity/weight gain as it develops in life. Behavior Alterations in the Fetus Besides the risk of obesity for the fetus from BPA exposure, there is a risk that females born from BPA exposure will be more hyperactive, aggressive and anxious. However, according to the study, there is no behaviour alterations from the BPA exposure in males. This change in behaviour is partially caused by BPA mimicking estrogen and changing the way it communicates with immature nerve cells. 'We have now shown that environmental estrogens like BPA appear to alter, in a very complicated fashion, the normal way estrogen communicates with immature nerve cells.' -—Scott Belcher, researcher BPA Short Term Effects "An exogenous agent that interferes with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of developmental processes." --- Environmental Protection Agency BPA exposure from pregnant women to the fetus may also affect the fertility rate of males and cause early puberty in females. Decrease in Insulin sensitivity by effecting and altering the function of the pancreas Long Term Effects of BPA Reduced sexual health Increased risk of diabetes, insulin resistance and obesity Higher plasma insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and glycerol levels (Mothers) Reduced glucose tolerance (Male offspring) Hyperactivity Lowered Sperm Count Miscarriage Possibility of breast, endometrial, ovarian, and colon cancers. Increased BPA chemical in urine Lower testosterone levels by effecting the testes and the pituitary Lower male fertility rates are due to the effect of BPA (endocrine distrupter) on lowering sperm count.
Sperm counts have decreased 50% in the last fifty years associated with detrimental BPA exposure in the fetus as it is a crucial time for developing. Through human studies, BPA exposure may also be associated with hypospadias (urethra opening defect) and cryptorchidism which is a testicle defect as they become undescended. Possible Effects on the Nervous System Through a study on rats, it was shown that BPA is associated in the reduction of 70-100% of nerve synapses in the hippocampus (memory area of brain) and the spinal cord.


It does this by blocking normal estrogen and androgen activity in these areas. Should Bisphenol A be BANNED from the market? Bisphenol A should be permanently banned from the market. Let's take a look at the reasons why. Possible Health Effects BPA should be banned due to its association with causing cancers, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, reducing sexual health and fertility rates, causing behavioral disorders and affecting the development of the fetus in pregnant mothers.

It is also not moral to include an endocrine disruptor in everyday plastic objects that are toxic even at small doses. Due to BPA lowering the fertility rates in males and sexual health. It also is warding the human species away from the biological species concept that states: Organisms are classified in the same species if they are potentially capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. Available Plastics Without the Detrimental Effects of BPA BPA-free plastics are available that do not have the chemical effects that BPA brings along to the users health.

They are durable, non-toxic, dishwasher safe and microwave safe which BPA plastics are not due to the leaching of the chemical from high heat.

It offers a peace of mind from reduced worry of side effects. Detrimental effects on Environment and Wildlife BPA has been causing cancerous tumors, abnormal growth of wildlife and sex changes in the fish population from the plastics deposited in the wildlife. Although, BPA is biodegradable, it does not do so right away giving time for animals to consume this detrimental chemical by chance. It also contaminates the water supply which affects wild life and humans. For example, BPA can be measured in rivers at concentrations that range from under 5 to over 1900 nanograms/liter. Final Thought: Due to the effects on wildlife, environment , and humans, BPA should be permanently banned from the market and substituted by BPA-free products. BIBLIOGRAPHY Please note: The links are click-able. I've made my DECISION about BPA use. What's Yours? Should it be banned in the market?
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