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Period One and Two Review WHAP
Transcript of Period One and Two Review WHAP
Peopling of the Earth
Early Urban Societies
Animism and Shamanism
Diffusion of religions aka TRADE ROUTES
Animism: natural word has spiritual powers.
Shamanism: human spirit guides (shamans) connect human and spirit world, and are considered healers.
Both have respect for ancestors who guide the living. Popular in Africa, Andes, and some of East Asia.
Classical Civs and the arts
Greece: invented theater w/ moral themes and comedies.
India: epic poems: Bhagavad Gita, tell story of self-sacrifice and devotion to Hindu faith.
monumental buildings for gov't and rel.
potamia have similar temples/ziggurats.
Hellenism: blend of Greek and Indian arch b/c Alex the Great.
Art and Sculpture
Confucius and Laozi
Warring States Period --> Confucianism. Phil, not religion.
The Analects: written text
Beliefs: filial piety, patriarchy.
Remained a continuity throughout all CH history.
Daoism: same time as Confucianism
Beliefs: humans and nature should be in balance and harmony, yin yang, acupuncture, influenced architecture to blend w/ landscape.
Period One and Two Review
Beginning- fall of Classical
AP World History
Paleolithic 250,000 BCE- 8000 BCE
Early migrations from Africa to Eurasia, Australia and Americas.
Hunter foragers in familial groups.
Stone tools, cave paintings.
Animistic- attributed sacred powers to events in nature. Archeology: found burials and statues of small deities.
Small-scale diffusion based on rival neighboring tribes.
aka Agricultural Rev
Budd & Christianity: equality of believers, spread through trade routes.
Budd thru Silk Rd to CH w/ message of peace.
CH= change to Buddha as deity: Mahayana.
CHR initially persecuted in Roman Emp., but official w/ Constantine. Spread thru missionaries and merchants into EUR and AFR. As Rome fell, CHR was comforting and increased in pop and power.
Know the Map
Classical Political Control- East
Persia: Achaemenid and Parthian.
Iraq, used satraps to govern provinces, Royal Rd. Overextended --> vulnerable to outside attack. Alex the Great --> decline. then Parthian!
China: Qin and Han.
Qin short! First emperor Shihuangdi w/ dynastic rule. Used legalism, built strong dynastic base.
Han! 206 BCE- 220 CE. Contemporary of Rome. Trade w/ silk roads. More tech developed than Rome. Used Confucianism for bureaucracy. Great Wall of CH, state sponsored canals.
India: Maurya and Gupta
Maurya: 321-185 BCE. Ashoka coverted to Buddh. Hinduism still main religion in S.
Gupta: 320-550 CE. Hindu golden age, zero, numbers, chess, medical advances.
Classical Political Control- West
Med.: Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans
Phoenicians: estbl colonies in Lebanon b/c of navy. No military conquests, just trade: luxury. Alphabet and coins adopted by Greeks.
Greece: Athens and Sparta, Alex.
Common lang, ATH= direct democracy, navy SPA= Oligarchy, army.
Alex: Conquered Greece --> India and Egypt. Hellenism: blending of Greek and SW, Central, and South Asia.
Rome: Copy and pasted Greek culture.
Republic (500-30 BCE) and Empire: (30 BC-476 AD)
Arch: Arches and Domes, and ROADS
Diplomacy and trade across Eurasia
Fell in 476: East 1/2= Byz. Empire.
Mesoamerica: Maya: math and calendars w/ farming and military. Moche before Inca w/ warrior=priests.
Sims and Conts of Classical Era
Cities important parts of all empires and city-states. Centers of trade, art, religion, and gov't.
AFR: Alexandria and Carthage
Med.: Constantinople, Athens
China: Chang'an (capital of Han Dynasty)
Social structures similar: 1. pol'l/rel elites, followed by merchants, warriors, craftspeople, laborers, and slaves.
CH thought merchants to be near bottom.
ID depended on caste (from Hinduism)
Continuity: Patriarchy! It's always a continuity...
Decline and Fall of Classical Emp.
Who fell? In order, Maurya, Han, W. Rome, and Gupta.
Internal causes of fall: disease, peasant revolts, resistance to high taxes, breakdown of imperial authority, and failing economies.
CH Yellow Turban Revolt: no landlords or oppressive gov't.
External causes of fall: nomadic invaders, in Rome: Huns, Goths, and Vandals.
Diffs? Han fell mostly due to internal struggles for power.
TRADE! Causes and Silk Road
Climate and topography determine what was traded. Trade happens b/c people want goods, like salt to preserve food.
Silk Roads- most extensive land trade-routes.
From CH: horses, spices, perfumes, porcelain, tea.
From IND: cotton, spices, sandalwood, rice, Buddhism
From C.Asia: almonds, camels, horses.
From MED: glass, gold, furs, olive oil, perfumes
From all: Disease, culture.
TRADE! Sahara and Indian Ocean
Sahara Caravan Routes
Merchants exchanged items for gold, salt, ivory, and slaves, connecting to the Silk Roads.
Camels introduced at beginning of CE... becomes more important in 600-1450 w/ Islam.
Indian Ocean Trading Network
Major diffusion of Buddhism to SE Asia.
Many of same items traded as Silk Roads.
All trade dependent on monsoon winds. Used dhows (triangular lateen sail) to follow the winds (shoutout to Arab merchants).
Americas? Much smaller scale b/c fewer people. Fewer domesticated animals, no wheels for transportation, N/S Axis made hard for trade. However, still some exchange of plants, pottery, and jewelry.
Planting and domestication of animals. Trend over the course of thousands of years.
settled in river valleys for irrigation.
origin in Mesopotamia, but also settled in Nile (EG), Yellow/Huang (CH), and Indus (ID).
Also some in Mesoamerica and Andes.
Animals: dogs, cats, goats, cattle, horses, chickens and pigs.
Animals --> disease.
Food tech: plow, wheel, clay pots --> more food= more people.
Food storage --> writing systems.
Metal: bronze (tin and copper) and later iron.
Specialization and social structure: b/c people stayed in one place, not everyone farmed, led to new jobs: craftspeople, warriors, religious leaders, scribes, and kings.
Yemen, remnants from early irrigation system.
Rise of civilization
Cities: 1st in Mesopotamia and Nile, used brick and stone --> ziggurat and pyramids (monumental structures).
Used rel. and pol. leaders to maintain social order. EG: pharaoh was also demi god. Intro of taxes and record-keeping (cuneiform and hieroglyphics, as well as Phoenician alphabet).
Legal codes: Hammurabi's Code: eye for an eye in Mesopotamia.
Neighboring cities --> common lang. and rel. --> unite to = empire.
King w/ authority from gods. Ex: Babylon and Egypt.
Literature: Epic of Gilgamesh- life and death, Rig Veda (ID) and Book of the Dead= origin of earth and afterlife.
Rel: Hinduism w/ the Veda, Judaism and Zoroastrianism