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Period One and Two Review WHAP
Transcript of Period One and Two Review WHAP
Early Urban Societies
Continuity! Ancient Religions
Diffusion of religions aka TRADE ROUTES
Animism: natural word has spiritual powers.
Shamanism: human spirit guides (shamans) connect human and spirit world, and are considered healers.
Both have respect for ancestors who guide the living. Popular in Africa, Andes, and some of East Asia.
Ancestor Veneration: Shang dynasty, influenced Confucianism
Classical Civs and the arts
Based on logic and reason.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Greek mythology taken and rebranded by Rome.
monumental buildings for gov't and rel.
potamia have similar temples/ziggurats.
Hellenism: blend of Greek and Indian arch b/c Alex the Great.
Daoism = nature in architecture.
Confucius and Laozi
Warring States Period --> Confucianism. Phil, not religion.
Emperor Wudi= brought it to gov't.
Beliefs: filial piety, patriarchy, education, 5 relationships
Remained a continuity throughout all CH history.
Daoism: same time as Confucianism
Beliefs: humans and nature should be in balance and harmony, yin yang, influenced architecture to blend w/ landscape & poetry to be based in nature.
Period One and Two Review
Beginning- fall of Classical
AP World History
Paleolithic 250,000 BCE- 8000 BCE
Early migrations from Africa to Eurasia, Australia and Americas.
Hunter foragers in familial groups.
egalitarian, matrilineal, but men in leadership.
Animistic- attributed sacred powers to events in nature. Found burials and statues of small deities.
Small-scale diffusion based on rival neighboring tribes.
aka Agricultural Rev
Budd & Christianity: equality of believers, spread through trade routes.
Budd thru Silk Rd to CH w/ message of peace.
Mauryan Ashoka = supporter
CH= change to Buddha as deity: Mahayana/Chan/Zen (JP)
CHR initially persecuted in Roman Emp., but official w/ Constantine. Spread thru missionaries and merchants into EUR and AFR. As Rome fell, CHR was comforting and increased in pop and power.
Know the Map
Classical Political Control- East
Used satraps to govern provinces, Royal Rd. Qanats (underground irrigation) Leaders= Cyrus and Darius the Greats.
China: Qin and Han.
Qin short! First emperor Shihuangdi w/ dynastic rule. Used legalism, built strong dynastic base. Standardized everything, started Long Wall (Great Wall)
Han! 206 BCE- 220 CE. Contemporary of Rome. Trade w/ silk roads. More tech developed than Rome. Used Confucianism for bureaucracy via civil service exam. Brought in tribute system. Corvee Labor
India: Maurya and Gupta.
Maurya: 321-185 BCE. Ashoka coverted to Buddh. --> Rock and Pillar Edicts. Hinduism still main religion in S.
Gupta: 320-550 CE. Hindu golden age, zero, numbers, chess, medical advances.
Classical Political Control- West
Phoenicians:estbl colonies in Lebanon b/c of navy. No military conquests, just trade: luxury. Alphabet and coins adopted by Greeks.
Greece: Athens and Sparta, Alexander.
Common lang, ATH= direct democracy, navy SPA= Oligarchy, army.
Alexander: Conquered Greece --> India and Egypt. Hellenism: blending of Greek and SW, Central, and South Asia (syncretism)
Rome: Copy and pasted Greek culture.
Republic (500-30 BCE) and Empire: (30 BC-476 AD)
Reb: Patricians and Plebeians. TWELVE TABLES.
Arch: Arches and Domes, and ROADS
Trade!!! Aqueducts!! Latin!! Way too many slaves.
Fell in 476: East 1/2= Byz. Empire.
Mesoamerica: Maya: math and calendars w/ farming and military. Moche before Inca w/ warrior=priests. North American Chaco and Cahokia.
Sims and Conts of Classical Era
Cities important parts of all empires and city-states. Centers of trade, art, religion, and gov't.
AFR: Alexandria and Carthage
Med.: Constantinople, Athens
China: Chang'an (capital of Han Dynasty)
Social structures similar: 1. pol'l/rel elites, followed by merchants, warriors, craftspeople, laborers, and slaves.
CH thought merchants to be near bottom.
ID depended on caste (from Hinduism)
Continuity: Patriarchy! It's always a continuity...
Decline and Fall of Classical Emp.
Who fell? In order, Maurya, Han, W. Rome, and Gupta.
Internal causes of fall: disease, peasant revolts, resistance to high taxes, breakdown of imperial authority, and failing economies.
Rome: Division of Rome with Diocletian (east= Byzantium), high taxes, non-loyal military.
CH Yellow Turban Revolt: wanted land reforms, didn't like eunuch influence.
Gupta: Too much power to local wealthy elite.
External causes of fall: nomadic invaders.
Germanic invasions in W. Roman Empire, Huns in China and India.
Diffs? Han fell mostly due to internal struggles for power.
TRADE! Causes and Silk Road
Climate and topography determine what was traded. Trade happens b/c people want goods, like salt to preserve food.
Silk Roads- most extensive land trade-routes.
From CH: horses, spices, perfumes, porcelain, tea.
From IND: cotton, spices, sandalwood, rice, Buddhism
From C.Asia: almonds, camels, horses.
From MED: glass, gold, furs, olive oil, perfumes
From all: Disease, culture.
TRADE! Sahara and Indian Ocean
Sahara Caravan Routes
Merchants exchanged items for gold, salt, ivory, and slaves, connecting to the Silk Roads.
Camels introduced at beginning of CE... becomes more important in 600-1450 w/ Islam.
Indian Ocean Trading Network
Major diffusion of Buddhism to SE Asia.
Many of same items traded as Silk Roads.
All trade dependent on monsoon winds. Used dhows (triangular lateen sail) to follow the winds (shoutout to Arab merchants).
Americas? Much smaller scale b/c fewer people. Fewer domesticated animals, no wheels for transportation, N/S Axis made hard for trade. However, still some exchange of plants, pottery, and jewelry.
Planting and domestication of animals. Trend over the course of thousands of years.
settled in river valleys for irrigation.
origin in Mesopotamia, but also settled in Nile (EG), Yellow/Huang (CH), and Indus (ID).
Also some in Mesoamerica and Andes.
Animals: dogs, cats, goats, cattle, horses, chickens and pigs.
Animals --> disease.
Food tech: plow, wheel, clay pots --> more food= more people.
Food storage --> writing systems.
Metal: bronze (tin and copper) and later iron.
Specialization and social structure: b/c people stayed in one place, not everyone farmed, led to new jobs: craftspeople, warriors, religious leaders, scribes, and kings. Also PATRIARCHY.
Yemen, remnants from early irrigation system.
Pop increase --> competition over resources --> social stratification, specialization, trade, writing, and gov't --> wealth accumulation --> war --> new tech in war/defense
Cities: 1st in Mesopotamia and Nile, used brick and stone --> ziggurat and pyramids (monumental architecture).
Leaders used religion to help rule: pharaohs= demi gods, Mesopotamia = priest-kings.
Legal codes: Hammurabi's Code: eye for an eye in Babylonia (in Mesopotamia).
Neighboring cities --> common lang. and rel. --> unite to = empire.
Pastoralists helped to develop and trade new weapons and transportation (iron weapons, chariots)
Rel: Vedic religion (early Hinduism), Judaism (Hebrews) and Zoroastrianism.
Writing: cuneiform (Mesop) and hieroglyphs (Egypt)
Long-distance trade: Mesop & Egypt, Egypt & Nubia, Mesop & Indus Valley
Pastoralism: An Anchor in the Past
Pastoralism: Used herds of animals and small-scale agriculture.
Helped to spread technology as they interacted with settled societies
Middle child social stratification
A continuity in world history
Monistic belief system: all gods within Hinduism are really a part/manifestation of brahman (impersonal energy that created all things and connects all things).
Based on Sanskrit Vedic religion.
Karma: law of cause and effect, good helps escape wheel of life, bad remain connected to wheel of life.
Dharma: the right way of living.
Caste System: hierarchy to help escape the wheel of life (reincarnation)
Vaisyas (skilled merchants)
Assyria (in Mesopotamia) captivity
Babylonian (in Mesopotamia) captivity
Diaspora (mass emigration) from Roman Empire led to diasporic communities in Mediterranean and Middle East
Islam (in Post-Classical)