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The Developement of Western Canada
Transcript of The Developement of Western Canada
By: Becky Bando The Early
Who First Lived In the Praire
Region (Before the Europeans? The First Nations first
lived in the Prairies:
Nakoda In the Prairies, the First Nations once lived their normal way of life, moving wherever they could find the resources they needed. A First Nation's normal resources would be animal herds for food, stones for making tools and berries during the summer months. So basically, First Nations only needed and used resources for food, clothing, tools, and hunting. The Spanish and Black Confederacy were soon involved with the Prairies. The Spanish found out that there were horses in North America and brought back some of these horses to explore Mexico in the 1520's. Some of these horses either escaped or were traded and soon enough these horses spread into the Prairies. Sometimes these horses were captured by the First Nations and Black Confederacy. These horses were a huge help for the Black Confederacy when they traveled, hunted, and traded. The Black Confederacy is an alliance with four other groups:
A major event for the Black Confederacy is was when they had a battle/war with the Cree because the Cree kept on going into the Black Conferacy's territory. The Metis (mixed) The Metis people are the people created by french furtraders marrying women from the first nations that had children. The Metis people were different from the First Natoins and the French for they were
Religious: Roman Cathoilic)
For Survival they farmed and hunted Scottish men who were employees of the HBC (Hudson's Bay Company) had relatonships with the First Nations women and had children were know as the "Country-born" (people mixed with British and First Nations ancestery). These people were know as the "Country-born" until the term died out and soon they also were know as the Metis people. Why Was the Red River Resistance Significant? Canada West wanted Rupert's Land in the 1850's which was a big part of Canada. The land was wanted because the area had economic potential (farming, hunting...). In the end, the HBC sold Rupert's land to Gait Canada which soon formed a new government. The land was divided into lots of fur sale and the traditional Metis way of life was gone. Metis were warned about:
keeping their way of life
how land was divided
land already occupied by Metis would be last Louis Riel became the leader of the Metis in Red River (born in Manitoba). The Metis had many rights:
1. Northwest entered confederation as a province
2. Schools were separate based on religion and publically funded
3. Treaty's between Canada and Indian nations were finished
4. There would be 2 common languages English and French
5. The lieutenant govenor would be familier with both languages
6. The judge of the supreme court would speak both languages
Reil's cousin helped Reil try to stop surveyors from coming onto his land. Unfortunately the Metis had many efforts failed during this process such as when the committee sent a note to Ottawa saying that McDougall (newly appointed lieutenant-govenor) should not try to come to Red River without permission. Then Reil set up a provincial government. Also, a man named Thomas Scott was one of the first Canadiens sent to Red River and he wanted Canada to grow and remain seperate from the USA. He also felt that the Metis people should not be part of the government. So, Reil supported the Metis and Scott was opposed to the Metis. Later on in 1870, Scott was arrested and soon executed for being found guilty of treason. The government felt that Reil was a criminal for being responsible for Scott's death. So Reil escaped to the USA and some Metis people went with him and some stayed in Red River and had to change their way of life. Three New Provinces and a Territory By the end of 1869, Canada was made up of 4 provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. In the next four years, 3 more provinces joined the nation: Manitoba, North-West Territories, BC, and PEI. The provinces joined together so they would be able to get more help from a bigger government. Manitoba joned Canada with the passing of the Manitoba act. The Manitoba act had 5 condition:
Provinces had to stay within a small area
English and French languages used in court and government
Two separate school systems paid by the government
Only religious education guaranteed.
Federal government had control over the land
Unfortunetly there were some concernes from some of the people living in Manitoba for they had different opinions about:
farming The expansion
of Settlement How did Treaties Help Secure Land For Settlement Canada wanted the Europeans to settle into the Prairies but the First Nations have lived there for thousands of years. The government couldn't just tell the First Nations to leave. Also, the First Nations resources and ways were very different which made it very hard for the government to decide what to do. The First Nations and Settler's had very different opinions and perspectives. The First Nations strongly believed in spirits such as "The Great Spirit". If the First Nations took care of the land, the Great Spirit would allow them to use only the resources they needed to survive on the land.
This is different from what the government and the Settlere's believed because the Settler's believed that they owned the land and that people can build individual lots around the land. Also, they believed that since they own the land, they can do anything they want on it and with it. By the end of 1873 a new map of Canada began to form causing more new problems and resolutions. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZEsqnkeelw Before, when Canada was just a bunch of serparate colonies, the French and British government's used treaties to deal with land and problems with the land. The First Nations signed a treaty, agreeing to give up their rights they've followed for centuries if the government
recognize First Nations rights to live on individual reserves
recognize First Nations rights to hunt and fish on these reserves according to their ancient customs
provide annual payement to reserves to comensate First Nations for the land they have given up
Supply farming implements, seeds, livestock, and instruction in new farming techniques
Build schools on reserves
The First Nations had no experience with written documetns and they didn't know that their lived would change that much. Maybe the government were only trying to help the First Nations or thought they needed help but is this really fair the First Nations? Did the First Nations really know what they would be in for when signing that treaty? There were a variety of treaties in Canada that didn't have many names, so Canada called them "The Number Treaties" for each treaty was given a number. For example, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta were involved with treaties 1-7. In 1876, there was one major even called the "Indian Act". The Indian Act passed a term called "Indian Status" which basically just recognizes First Nations:
Only "full blooded" First Nations could have an Indian Status
The First Nations on the reserves became "wards of state" (under the care of the goverment). Were forbided to drink alcohol...
First Nations women who married non-First Nations men would loose their Indian Status and right to live on the reserve. Non-First Nations women who married First Nations men would get an Indian Status.
Many people beleived that the Indian Act wasn't right and is unfair. Parts of the Indian Act has changed a bit probably because of this. Developing The West Another problem that Canada had was trying to find a way to fill the West with settler's, because the West's population was really small. There weren't enough people in Canada to expand in that region, so the government made a system to make it easier for immigrants to enter Canada and settle in the Prairies which gave great results. The Immigration act was in 1869 to move more of the imagrants into Canada. The Immigration Act included rules such as:
keeping people with contagious diseases out of the country
Requiring ships to show passenger lists to officers of the government upon their arrival. There was also a Dominin Act in 1872 which set up rules about how the land is to be used:
Prairies were devided into town ships (10km square blocks)
The townships were devided into 36 sections
The HBC and schools each got 2 sections
16 blocks for railway construction
The remaining 16 were homesteads (farming for settlers)
The Metis didn't quite enjoy the Dominion Act for they were not treated the same as the Settlers and found homestead very difficult. They could not get modern-steam driving equipement and had to rely on hand tools.
People such as the Settler's loved free land that they could grow their own food on so the population in the Northwest kept increasing but very slowly since the only problem was that there was no railway and settlers walked great distances to get to their homesteads. The government was starting to become very impartient and decided to build a railway to increase the population even quicker. Building A Transcontinental Railway In 1871 John.A.MacDonald promised to build a railway in 10 years which didn't start out so well because companies didn't want to invest in it. A railway company could become very rich when MacDonald offered financial help and free land. This caused a lot of competition, for a lot of the companies wanted this contract and before the railway really got going, MacDonald soon had a huge problem. After the election in 1872, MacDonald needed money for the upcoming election. He decided to accept a donation from a ship owner named Allan who was also trying to win the railway contract. Ultimately, Allan was granted the contract. Many people thought this looked like a bribe to get the railway contact while others thought it was normal buisness to make donations and the bribe could not be proved. As a result of the scandal, the Conservative government lost the election and the Liberals came into power until 1878 when MacDonald was re-elected. With this new national policy was created which did the following:
increase taxes on goods produced in other countries
decreased taxes on raw materials which were brought into the country
This new national policy resulted in creating new jobs and was good for the country. The Canadian Pacific Railway and it's Impact In 1881 MacDonald gave the new contract to build the railway was given to CPR (Canadian Pacific Railway). CPR agreed to build the railway in exchange for the following three items:
1. 25 million dollars
2. 10 hectors of land
3. 20 years with out competition
As a result, the railroad was built in 44 years. The building of the CPR involved many people including
William Van Horne- who later became president
Chinese Labour- who were asked to leave Canada once the railway was completed and charged a head tax of $50 if they wanted to stay in Canada. The head tax soon increased to $100 then too $500.
Donald Smith- who provided a lot of the money through the bank of Montreal
The CPR insured the suvival of Canada by allowing the transport of people and goods across Canada from Nova Scotia all the way to British Colombia. Also, the railway separated Canada from the US. The North West Rebellion of 1885 Causes:
By 1885 the Metis who had settled in Saskatchewan began to struggle for food , shelter, and clothing
The Metis tried to get help from the government for land, schools, policing... but did not recieve it
Louis Reil returned to lead the Metis and was supported by First Nations cheifs
MacDonald (the government) decided to fight against Riel by assembling the Mounted Police and transporting soldiers using the railway
A series of battles were fought and won
1. Battle of Duck Lake- won by the Metis
2. Massacre ot Frog Lake- both sides had casualties
3. Battle of Fish Creek- both sides with drew
4. Battle of Cut Knife- both sides retreated
5. Battle of Batoche- Riel Surrendered The end of the rebellion:
Ended on May 28, 1885 and was one by the government. As the Metis retreated, Riel was executed.