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Wastewater in brewery industry
Transcript of Wastewater in brewery industry
John Villamil INDEX Brewery industry and environment
Wastewater and pollution generated in breweries
Untreated waste water characteristics for breweries
.2 Anaerobic treatment
.3 Aerobic treatment
WWTP- Bavaria SabMILLER Valle, Colombia
Conclusions Master of Environment Engineering
University of Santiago of Compostela Pre-treatment Anaerobic treatment Aerobic treatment Thanks Questions? Waste water and pollution generated in breweries Some characteristics:
5 - 10 kg COD/m3/d for the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) types.
15 - 25 kg COD/m3/d for the Expanded Anaerobic Sludge Bed (EGSB) types.
The sludge generation is typical in the order 0.04 - 0.08 kg SS/kg COD removed. At a temperature range of 25 - 35°C, activated sludge WWTP can be loaded with 1.2 - 1.8 kg COD/m3/d and obtain an effluent quality of 15 - 25 mg BOD/l. Typical sludge generation will be in the order of 0.45 - 0.55 kg SS/kg BOD removed. Normal loading of the sedimentation tank is in the range of 0.5 - 1.0 m3/m2/h. An efficient sedimentation tank can secure a concentration of suspended solids in the effluent of 20 - 30 g SS/m3. Water consumption waste water volume 0.24-0.9 m3/hl 0.3-1 m3/hl Screening
Typically, the waste water is first screened to remove glass, labels, and bottle caps, floating plastic items and spent grains. Grit removal system
After the waste water has been screened, it may flow into a grit chamber where sand, grit, and small stones settle to the bottom. Flow equalization
It is a technique used to consolidate waste water effluent in holding tanks for "equalizing" before introducing waste water into downstream brewery treatment processes. Valle Brewery-Valle, Colombia Loading rate 20 - 30 kg COD/m3/day IC REACTOR Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor WWTP fromTocancipa Brewery (Colombia) Loading rate 22 kg COD/m3 day
Vupflow=7.8 m/h ANAEROBIC TREATMENT POSSIBILITIES....
UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor)
IC rector (Internal Circulation reactor)
EGSB (Expanded Granular Sludge Bed) Design criteria of WWTP
6 hl wastewater/hl beer
1.8 kg COD/hl beer
COD=3 g O2/l 6.5 kg COD /m3 day (WWTP-Bavaria Barranquilla, Colombia).
7 kg COD/m3 day (WWTP-Bavaria Boyaca, Colombia).
7 kg COD /m3 day (WWTP-Bavaria Bogotá, Colombia). Operation of water treatment plant Anaerobic
treatment Pre-treatment Installed capacity: 4.1 million hectoliters per year DWT WWTP bar screens Rotary screen easily biodegradable ! All the water which is not contained in packaged beer or in secondary products and which is not lost by evaporation will be wastewater.
Some breweries reduce their polluting potential by treating their wastewater on site in their own wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Importance of waste water in breweries Brewers depend highly on the environment for resources, both in quality and in quantity.
Water is the most important raw material used by the brewing sector. Water makes up about 92% of beer.
It is also used for cleaning process, and as cooling water and in heat exchangers for temperature control. Brewery and environment Around 30 active breweries.
Beer consumption in 2011 was 48.2 liters per capita.
Beer exports increased by 9.12%, evidence of the quality of Spanish beers, while imports fell by 4.36%.
In 2011, the state collected € 279 million in excise through beer, proof of the importance of the sector in the Spanish economy.
Spain continues as the fourth EU country in production volume and remains among the top 10 brewers in the world, according to the latest data available from 2010. Brewing in Spain The EU remains one of the major beer producing territories in the world. Its 3,638 breweries produce 383 million hectolitres of beer a year.
Over 2 million jobs in the EU (approximately 1% of all jobs in Europe).
Total beer sales in 2010 amounted to 106 billion € (0.42% of the GDP of the EU).
The value added by the brewing sector is estimated to be 50 billion €. Brewing in Europe Brewery industry and environment Brewing process Yeast is added to wort, and it begins to ferment. It is during this stage that sugars from the malt are metabolized into alcohol and carbon dioxide, and the product can be called beer for the first time.
Fermentation is essentially the process of yeast feeding on the sugars in the wort. Once yeast consume the sugars, they excrete carbon dioxide and alcohol which are both useful in the finished beer. Fermenting Carbonization Filtering the beer stabilizes the flavor, and gives beer its polished shine and brilliance. Not all beer is filtered. If beer did not have enough carbon is injected at this time. Filtering The green beer needs to be matured to allow full development of flavors and to provide perfectly smooth finish.
When the sugars have been almost completely digested, the beer is cooled to around freezing, which encourages settling of the yeast, and causes proteins to coagulate and settle out with the yeast.
Conditioning can take from 2 to 4 weeks, sometimes longer, depending on the type of beer. Maturing The decanted wort, which is approx. 98°C, is cooled to about 8 ° C in a plate heat exchanger which uses water as a refrigerant. This water could be reused elsewhere in the process where necessary. Cooling Whirpooling or clarification After boiling, the wort is moved to a whirlpool for a wort separation stage.
The trub (coagulated proteins, vegetable matter from hops) is deposited in the bottom center of the whirlpool tank. Mashing is the process of combining a mix of milled grain with water and heating this mixture up to allow enzymes in the malt to break down the starch in the grain into sugars.
Mashing removes most of the proteins, starches and sugars from the grain, leaving behind what is known as "spent grain." Mashing Break the malt to extract the fermentable sugars that allow maceration.
The mill product is called grist. Milling Packaging is putting the beer into the containers in which it will leave the brewery. Typically this means in bottles, aluminium cans and kegs.
In this process it is necessary to stabilize beer microbiologically ensure that it maintains its properties over a period of time long enough. This stabilization is often achieved by pasteurization even though there membrane technologies, which allow this operation without application of heat. Packaging Elementary raw materials Boiling the malt extracts, called wort, ensures its sterility, and thus prevents a lot of infections.
Hops are added, which contribute bitterness, flavor, and aroma compounds to the beer. Boiling Lautering is the process of separating the wort (liquid) from the spent grain Lautering High pH, SS,
DQO Organic Organic High pH, SS Organic mater,
Temperature High organic load,
cleaning, disinfection and
non organic waste remains (S, Alk). Yeast Malt Water Hops WATER
CELLAR Yeast Organic Organic Spent grain Trub WWTP-Bavaria Yumbo Valle
8.4 kg COD/m3 day Anubix B-GWE WWTP-Valle Brewery MBR (Membrane bioreactor) and more... CONCLUSIONS Today the main goal in brewing industry is to produce more beer with less water consumption. This requires the application of BAT in the unit of the process that have higher water consumption. The pollution generated in the process Some characteristics: Some characteristics: Waste water production in different brewery processes [65, Germany, 2002] Fermentation and filtering produces a low amount of waste water but with only a high organic load, only about 3 % of the total waste water volume but 97 % of the BOD load. The waste water brewery has a relatively high biodegradable COD so it usually needs a pretreatment, anaerobic treatment and aerobic treatment for effective removal. Waste water characteristics