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Chapter 8, Supporting Your Ideas
Transcript of Chapter 8, Supporting Your Ideas
The materials used to support a speaker's ideas
There are three major kinds of supporting materials
What are examples?
Why are they important?
According to Boundless.com, Examples include specific situations, problems or stories designed to help illustrate a principle, method, or phenomenon.
Examples are important and proper use of them often makes the difference between a poor speech and a good one
General- There are lots of community colleges in the United States.
Less General- Community colleges enroll a large number of students and play a vital role in American higher education.
Specific- According to the Dept. of Ed, there are more than 1,100 community colleges in the US. They enroll some 12 million students each year, which is 44 percent of all US undergrads.
A specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.
Changes in technology have made it possible for doctors to work wonders that once seemed impossible. Roger Charter, for example, lost both feet and now has new feet. The new feet are made of a springy plastic alloy that duplicates a normal arch.
Many of us are familiar with prominent Chicanos and Chicanas such as actress Jessica Alba, boxer Oscar de la Hoya, and guitarist Carlos Santana. But you may be less familiar with other Americans of Mexican origin who made important contributions to US society. Professional golfer Nancy Lopez, former astronaut, Dr. Ellen Ochoa, and Dr. Mario Molina who won the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Extended examples are often called narratives, illustrations, or anecdotes.
By telling a story vividly and dramatically, they pull listeners into the speech
The long example captures vividly the courage of the Olympic runner and her personification of the Olympic Spirit
"Olympic athletes often display great fortitude."
-An example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
The speaker creates a realistic scenario, relates it directly to her listeners, and gets them involved in the speech.
When ones uses a hypothetical example, it is a good idea to follow it with statistics or testimony
Tips and Tricks
-Use examples to CLARIFY your ideas.
-Examples are an excellent way to CLARIFY unfamiliar or complex ideas
-Examples put abstract ideas into concrete terms that listeners can easily understand
The suspension bridge has a roadway suspended by vertical cables attatched to two or more main cables.
Two well known suspension bridges are the Golden Gate Bridge in San Fran and the Brooklyn Bridge in New York
Use examples to reinforce your ideas
Personal examples are an excellent way to clarify your ideas and to build audience interest.
To be most effective, personal examples should be delivered sincerely and with strong eye contact
Use examples to personalize your ideas
"There are many hungry families in our community who could benefit from food donations."
Few Last Tips
-Make Examples Vivid and Richly Textured
-Practice Delivery To Enhance Your Extended Examples
1. Do I use examples to clarify my ideas?
2. Do I use examples to reinforce my ideas?
3. Do I use examples to personalize my ideas?
4. Are my examples representative of my ideas?
5. Are my extended examples rich and vivid?
-What are statistics?
-Why are they important?
-Where can I find statistics?
-Why should I care?
Statistics are a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of masses of numerical data
-Measures that summarize a particular characteristic of an entire group of numbers.
"The recommended daily requirements of sleep, eight hours of sleep a night for adults and at least an hour more for adolescents. Yet 71% of adults and 85% of teens do not get the suggested amount."-Sora Song(Time Magazine)
Statistics are often cited to CLARIFY or STRENGTHEN
-Used to clarify the speakers points
Example: To illustrate the dramatic increase in pay for professional athletes:
"ESPN reports that just 20 years ago, the highest paid basketball player made $5 million. Today, the highest paid player makes more than $30 million a year."
To Show MAGNITUDE or SERIOUSNESS
Example: According to the Urban Mobility Report from Texas A&M University, Americans collectively spend 4.2 billion hours stuck in traffic each year. All told, traffic congestion results in more than $87 billion in wasted fuel an lost productivity. That number breaks down to about $750 per traveler each year.
Using Statistical Measures Correctly
Three Basic Measures:
Mean- is determined by summing all the items in a group and dividing by the number of items
Median- is the middle figure in a group once the figured are put in order from highest to lowest
Mode- the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers
Statistical Measure Example
Group A Group B
Mean- 5,200 Mean-3,960
Median- 5,000 Median- 5,000
Mode- 4,400 Mode- 5,400
Easy Tips for Using Statistics
-Use them sparingly
-Identify the Sources of your Statistics
-Round them off
-Use Visual Aids
Testimony is a formal written or spoken statement, especially one given in a court of law.
According to http://legaldictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ in the court of law, you only have to prove beyond resonable doubt
Likewise in your speeches your audience(classmates) is your jury and you have to be able to prove your point to them
Peer testimony is the testimony from ordinary people with first hand experience or insight on a topic
This type shows a more personal angle on the topic
It can help the audience understand the subject better since it is coming from somebody who has lived with it, tried it themselves.
It is not good to use what somebody has heard, it is not actually their testimony
Citing the views of experts gives credibility to the speech
Expert testimony is testimony from people who are recognized as experts in their fields
By using this type of testimony, you prove that it is not just your opinion but also that it is supported by people who have knowledge of the topic
How to Find Testimony
Internet- Search engines, online articles, blogs
Libraries- Autobiographies, magazine articles
People- Personal Interviews and surveys
Using Testimony in Your Speech
Direct Quotations- Testimony that is presented word for word
Paraphrasing- To restate or summarize a source's ideas in one's words
When to use quotes or paraphrasing-
When it is brief, it conveys your meaning better than you and they are especially witty or compelling
Things to watch for-
Do not misquote and make sure you do not violate the meaning of statements you paraphrase and do not quote out of context
The Power of Testimony
Testimony backs up your argument or factual information
Makes your topic more reliable
Persuades your audience